Category Archives: Abstracts

Abstract: Forging the Future

AAPI Nexus: Forging the Future Volume 9, Number 1&2 Fall 2011 Abstracts

CIVIL RIGHTS

Overview: Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Data and Policy Needs in Civil Rights
By: Taeku Lee and Janelle Wong

Crossing Intersections: Challenges Facing Asian American, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Youth: Exploring Issues and Recommendations
By: Ben de Guzman and Alice Y. Hom

The experiences and the everyday life stories of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth who are also Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AANHPI) are not well-known or documented in the literature about LGBT or AANHPI communities. To help address this lack of information and knowledge, this article highlights some of the issues that these youth face and offers recommendations regarding data collection, cultural competency, and utilization of an intersectional lens of race/ethnicity and sexual orientation to ensure changes will be considered to policies that affect these populations. The policy recommendations focus on issues such as bullying and sexual and reproductive health.

Bringing Asian American Voices to Policy Debates: Findings from the 2008 National Asian American Survey
By: S. Karthick Ramakrishnan, Jane Junn, Taeku Lee, and Janelle Wong

Where do Asian Americans stand when it comes to public policy? In what ways are they most likely to participate in politics in order to exert their influence in public policy making? More often than not, the answer to these questions is mired in assumptions, anecdotes, and selective evidence because until only very recently, little systematic, nationally representative data on this emerging group has been available to the public. In this brief, we introduce the 2008 National Asian American Survey (NAAS), the first multilingual, multiethnic national survey of Asian American political attitudes and behavior, and suggest that these data shed light on: (1) critical questions about Asian Americans’ public policy attitudes and (2) the types of political action Asian Americans are most likely to take to pursue their policy interests.

Rights at Risk: South Asians in the Post-9/11 United States
By: Sangay Mishra.

South Asian Americans, one of the fastest-growing and most diverse immigrant communities, have experienced increased discrimination and hate crime during the post-9/11 period. South Asians bore the brunt of racial hostility triggered in the immediate aftermath of the attacks, with Muslims and Sikhs bearing the greatest burden. The domestic security policies inaugurated after 2001 further impacted both South Asian and Arab communities adversely. These official policies ranging from surveillance of mosques and communities to delayed naturalization and restricted immigration have severely encroached upon the civil liberties of the groups. The ten-year anniversary of the 9/11 attacks should be an occasion to review some of these policies in order to ensure that South Asian and Arab communities are not being profiled and targeted in the name of domestic security.

An Agenda for Policy Change: Participatory Research and Data Collection by Southeast Asian Youth
By: Kohei Ishihara

In a policy-making world that is influenced by “model minority” ideology and racial aggregate data, Southeast Asian Americans have become one of the most underrepresented and misunderstood Asian American communities. Cambodian, Laotian, and Hmong youth leaders in Providence, Rhode Island, protested this lack of representation by surveying 16 percent of the city’s Southeast Asian youth population. This data became the first of its kind to provide a quantitative and qualitative portrait of the lives and issues experienced by the city’s Southeast Asian residents. Youth leaders were trained in survey administration and data analysis in order to design and execute the survey. Survey results revealed the very intricate and oppressive realities faced by Southeast Asian youth, including lack of education, gang violence, racial profiling, inter-generational conflict, as well cultural conflict over ideas of gender and sexuality. Youth leaders used the data and a process of consensus decision making to develop a list of policy-change recommendations targeting Rhode Island decision makers and power brokers.

Bamboo Ceilings in the Federal Service
By: Carson K. Eoyang

This article is an update to the 2006 AAPI Nexus Journal article about Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) senior executives in the federal government. Despite notable progress in recent years, AAPIs remain underrepresented in the Senior Executive Service (SES). Although recent administration initiatives have been beneficial for increasing diversity in the civil service, budget pressures and workforce constraints still hinder further advancements in executive diversity.

Policy Recommendations to Reduce Toxic Exposures for Nail Salon Workers
By: Julia Liou, Catherine A. Porter, and Thu Quach

The nail salon sector is growing rapidly. Nail salon workers are predominantly Vietnamese immigrant women who are exposed to numerous harmful chemicals in nail care products. The situation is exacerbated by limited safety information, language barriers to information, and lack of government oversight. This brief discusses the health and safety issues faced by workers at the nexus of environmental and worker justice and the policy recommendations by which to address these issues from a public health and regulatory perspective. Although these policy recommendations pertain to California where the sector is largest, they also have far-reaching implications at the national level.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Overview: Challenges in Analyzing and Tracking Asian American Pacific Islander Economic Conditions
By: Paul Ong

Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Employment Issues in the United States
By: Marlene Kim

Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) in the United States face problems of discrimination, the glass ceiling, and very high long-term unemployment rates. As a diverse population, although some Asian Americans are more successful than average, others, like those from Southeast Asia and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs), work in low-paying jobs and suffer from high poverty rates, high unemployment rates, and low earnings. Collecting more detailed and additional data from employers, oversampling AAPIs in current data sets, making administrative data available to researchers, providing more resources for research on AAPIs, and enforcing nondiscrimination laws and affirmative action mandates would assist this population.

The State of Asian American Businesses
By: Diem Linda Tran and OiYan A. Poon

Business success is a dominant theme in the Asian American narrative. However, Asian American entrepreneurship is more complex and multilayered than commonly believed and requires careful scrutiny. This brief examines the state of Asian American business ownership between 2005 and 2007. Findings suggest that although Asian Americans form businesses at higher rates than other racial/ethnic minorities, Asian American business ownership and outcomes continue to trail those of non-Hispanic whites. Potential factors contributing to racial/ethnic gaps and policy recommendations are discussed.

The Changing Landscape of Asian Entrepreneurship, Minority Banks, and Community Development
By: Tarry Hum.

This policy brief examines minority banks and their lending practices in New York City. By synthesizing various public data sources, this policy brief finds that Asian banks now make up a majority of minority banks, and their loans are concentrated in commercial real estate development. This brief underscores the need for improved data collection and access to research minority banks and the need to improve their contributions to equitable community development and sustainability.

Disaggregation Matters: Asian Americans and Wealth Data
By: Melany De La Cruz-Viesca

This policy brief explores the usefulness and limitations of existing federal government data sets in better understanding the wealth position and asset-building needs of Asian Americans. As Asian Americans continue to be one of the fastest-growing racial groups in the United States, it is critical for federal data sets to disaggregate Asian Americans by ethnicity and by immigrant versus nonimmigrant status, in order to provide a more accurate and nuanced analysis of the Asian American experience with asset accumulation. The lumping of all Asian American ethnic groups under the aggregate “Asian” category masks a high degree of variation in social and economic status across these subgroups.

Working but Poor in New York City
By: Howard Shih

This policy brief summarizes the methodology and key findings of the Asian American Federation’s report, Working but Poor: Asian Americans in New York City. The report marked the first time Asian American poverty in New York City was examined in detail using the new American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample. The report also uses two definitions to examine struggling Asian Americans, the official poverty thresholds traditionally used and a concept of low-income families defined as families living below twice the federal poverty thresholds. After a summary on the methodology of the report, the brief will cover the findings and recommendations through three issue areas: improving job opportunities for working-age Asian Americans, building skills to help Asian American children broaden their future opportunities, and helping seniors in need of access to the social safety net. The brief concludes with an overview of Asian American poverty from a national perspective and discussion of future areas of study.

EDUCATION

Overview: Educational Data, Research Methods, Policies, and Practices that Matter for AAPIs
By: Shirley Hune

Asian American College Students over the Decades: Insights from Studying Asian American First-Year Students from 1971 to 2005 Using Survey Research Data
By: Julie J. Park

The purpose of this brief is to discuss insights from using survey data from the UCLA Higher Education Research Institute’s Cooperative Institutional Research Program’s (CIRP) Freshman Survey to study Asian American first-year students. The CIRP is the country’s oldest, ongoing study of college students, and 361,271 Asian American students have completed the survey since its inception. In addition to describing unique findings that came from disaggregating data by gender and income level, I discuss the need for survey response options to be tailored to the needs of Asian American students.

The Importance of Critically Disaggregating Data: The Case of Southeast Asian American College Students
By: Dina C. Maramba

The following policy brief calls for the improvement in data collection of Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) and, more specifically, Southeast Asian Americans (SEAAs) in order to facilitate college access and success. First, context and the concern for the lack of data are provided. Second, an explanation of the challenges with the existing data and importance of disaggregating data with regard to ethnicity and other important factors such as language and generational status are discussed. Also emphasized is the importance of incorporating the use of qualitative data in the policy decision-making process. Third, suggestions and recommendations that will benefit research and eventually positively influence policy decisions regarding SEAAs in education are discussed.

Broadening Support for Asian American and Pacific Islander Immigrant Families: The Role and Impact of Community- based Organizations in Family-Community-School Partnerships
By: Nga-Wing Anjela Wong

Children of immigrants are the fastest-growing population in the United States; therefore addressing their needs has become an important issue that faces educators, researchers, and policy makers nationwide. This policy brief examines the services and support for Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) families during nonschool hours. Specifically, I illustrate the role and impact of a community-based organization (CBO) in family-community-school partnerships and how CBOs provide information, support, and advocacy for low-income Chinese immigrant families.

Charter School “Miracle”? Youth Participatory Action Research and Education Reform in Post-Katrina New Orleans
By: Jacob Cohen and OiYan A. Poon

This policy brief examines and identifies education disparities within the context of a much-touted New Orleans “charter school miracle.” After describing the Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) method employed at a local Vietnamese American youth organization in New Orleans, we summarize findings on inequalities in academic rigor and access to quality teaching, which suggest that charter school reforms are not bringing about an education “miracle” in post-Katrina New Orleans and that students of color, in particular, are inadequately served. The brief also discusses the potential implications of YPAR methods for asserting Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) perspectives and voices in ongoing education reform debates.

Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions: Areas of Growth, Innovation, and Collaboration
By: Robert T. Teranishi.

This policy brief aims to raise the national visibility of the Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions (AANAPISI) program and link the needs of these institutions to the hundreds of similar Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs) (e.g., historically black colleges and universities, Hispanic-serving institutions, and tribal colleges and universities). More specifically, this brief demonstrates how and why the MSI policy strategy is an effective way to increase the success of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) college students, and how the AANAPISI program can be further strengthened.

HEALTH

Overview: What a Difference a Data Set and Advocacy Make for AAPI Health
By: Ninez A. Ponce

Limited English Proficiency as a Critical Component of the Department of Health and Human Services Proposed Rule for Medically Underserved Areas
By: Rosy Chang Weir, Stacy Lavilla, Winston Tseng, Luella J. Penserga, Hui Song, Sherry M. Hirota, Jeffrey B. Caballero, and Won Kim Cook

Medically underserved Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Other Pacific Islanders (AA&NHOPIs) and other racial/ethnic minorities are often left out of the health center system (OMB, 1997; Papa Ola Lokahi, 2007). The Department of Human and Health Services is updating its Proposed Rule, which determines key population health indicators for medically underserved areas (MUA) and health professional shortage designations. This is important as revisions could increase Community Health Center (CHC) health care access for underserved AA&NHOPIs. We recommend that Limited English Proficiency be used as one of the measures in determining MUAs, as it is a scientifically valid and available measure that can identify where underserved AA&NHOPIs and other minorities who face an added language barrier can access needed health services.

Collection of Local Asian American Health Data Closes Health Disparity Gaps
By: Beverly J. Gor and Lovell A. Jones

Lack of disaggregated health data for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) continues to be a barrier to identifying and addressing health disparities in the AAPI population. Because the AAPI population is relatively small, health surveillance groups frequently overlook or disregard them in their data collection, often citing that AAPIs are “difficult to reach,” or that it is too costly to include them in data sets. This brief addresses these barriers and demonstrates that when there is sufficient support from policymakers, committed academic partnerships, and genuine engagement of the community, scientifically sound health data can be collected in a cost efficient manner. Such data not only identifies health needs, but also may generate significant benefits to communities, health planners and researchers and can lead to funding to address those needs.

Childhood Obesity in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities: Critical Data Needs and Research Priorities
By: Shao-Chee Sim

Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs) have some of the fastest-growing rates of obesity of all ethnic groups (Harrison et al., 2005). Preventing childhood obesity among AANHPIs is a challenge constrained by resource and research gaps. These include the lack of national prevalence data, insufficient funding support, limited knowledge of risk factors associated with childhood obesity, particularly in these populations, and the lack of programmatic evaluations. The finding of this literature review shows that only 0.11 percent of PubMed articles on childhood obesity focused on AANHPIs. Recommendations to advance what is known about AANHPI and childhood obesity include targeting community prevalence studies, community needs assessments, risk factor studies, and program evaluations; training and mentoring junior researchers; and creating a national clearing-house to compile research literature and evidence-based practices.

Strategic Data and Research Opportunities on Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Health through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
By: Winston Tseng, Priscilla Huang, and Won Kim Coo

This paper summarizes the federal requirements under Section 4302(a) of the Affordable Care Act (ACA); the opportunities for improving data collection to address health disparities affecting Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders; the provision’s limitations; and how to address these limitations. Our recommendations for ACA Section 4302(a) implementation include: (1) adhering to the 2009 Institute of Medicine’s data standards on race, ethnicity, and primary language; (2) requiring federally-supported national surveys, health care providers, and publicly-administered health programs at the point of care and enrollment to comply with Section 4302 requirements; (3) ensuring compliance with Title VI and ACA Section 1557 non-discrimination requirements by providing translated health surveys and increasing language assistance capacity; and (4) engaging communities in the design of race, ethnicity, and language data to ensure community relevance.

NATIVE HAWAIIANS AND PACIFIC ISLANDERS

 Overview: Lots of Aloha, Little Data: Data and Research on Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders
By: Shawn Malia Kana‘iaupuni

Efficacy of Federal Data: Revised Office of Management and Budget Standard for Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders Examined
By: Sela V. Panapasa, Kamana‘opono M. Crabbe, and Joseph Keawe‘aimoku Kaholokula

This policy brief examines the status of federal data since the implementation of the 1997 Revised OMB 15 standards for the collection of race and ethnic data, identifies ongoing data limitations, and present recommendations to improve policy and interventions for Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPI). While most federal agencies are taking appropriate steps to comply with the revised OMB standards, many are having less success reporting disaggregated information on NHPIs. This suggests that increased efforts to obtain robust samples of NHPIs warrants immediate attention in order for federal agencies to fully comply with the revised OMB standards.

New Research on the Impact of Cultural Influences in Education on Native Hawaiian Student Outcomes
By: Shawn Malia Kana‘iaupuni, Brandon Ledward, and Ku‘ulani Keohokalole

The long-standing education achievement gaps of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) students in our nation represent a significant concern, one that diverse stakeholders are committed to resolving. Although national data sets fail to address NHPI populations, thereby limiting the ability to drive effective policy and programs, local-level research and developments in education provide fresh opportunities to reexamine the learning and teaching of NHPI students. This report shares the results of a quantitative research study that examines the impact of culture-based education (CBE) on student achievement and socio-emotional development. The findings indicate that culture-based educational strategies positively impact student outcomes, especially Native Hawaiian student outcomes. The implications of this study are valuable for education practitioners, programs, and policy makers seeking to eliminate achievement gaps for NHPI and indigenous students.

Policy Recommendations to Prevent Youth Violence and Substance Abuse and Foster Positive Youth Development among Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Adolescents
By Karen Umemoto and Earl S. Hishinuma

Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders represent diverse groups with unique histories and rich cultural traditions. They also confront significant challenges in health and education, experiencing disproportionally higher rates of violence and substance abuse. Policy recommendations regarding youth delinquency, substance abuse, and positive development include: (1) application of a socio-ecological approach; (2) utilization of a positive youth development and restorative approach; (3) development of culturally based interventions; (4) the building of capacity for youth-serving organizations; (5) development and strengthening of collaborations; (6) juvenile justice reforms; and (7) encouragement of research that disaggregates ethnic groups and gives greater consideration to community perspectives.

Indigenous Knowledges Driving Technological Innovation
By: The Hi‘iaka Working Group

This policy brief explores the use and expands the conversation on the ability of geospatial technologies to represent Indigenous cultural knowledge. Indigenous peoples’ use of geospatial technologies has already proven to be a critical step for protecting tribal self-determination. However, the ontological frameworks and techniques of Western geospatial technologies differ from those of Indigenous cultures, which inevitably lead to mistranslation and misrepresentation when applied to cultural knowledge. The authors advocate the creation of new technologies that are more conducive to Indigenous ontologies and epistemologies in an effort to break down the barriers to the expression and preservation of cultural heritage and cultural survival.

Liberating Data: Accessing Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Data from National Data Sets
By: Maile Taualii, Joey Quenga, Raynald Samoa, Salim Samanani, and Doug Dover

Using data from the National Center for Health Statistics, an assessment was performed on the quality of death reporting in accordance with standards, a working definition was developed, death counts and rates for several racial categories were analyzed, and data was modeled for use in data structures optimized for analysis and reporting with simple client tools. Most states were still not compliant with the 1997 Office of Management and Budget racial categories by 2005. Comparing the mortality experience of NHOPI to whites revealed many differences. Mortality was higher in NHOPI males and occurred at younger ages for both males and females. The place of death differed between NHOPI and whites, while place of injury (where applicable) was similar. Causes also varied after the top two causes of death.

Abstract: Mental Health

AAPI Nexus: Mental Health Volume 8, Number 2 Spring 2011 Abstracts

Aligning Policy to the Mental Health  Needs of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
Marguerite Ro and Wendy Ho

ABSTRACT: This paper examines federal and California state mental health policy as related to Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. A brief review of several pertinent issues is presented: the mental health status of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, culture and stigma, insurance coverage and utilization, and the mental health workforce. Recommendations are suggested to address issues of data and research, culturally competent services, and accountability of existing policies.

Comparative Effectiveness Research on Asian American Mental Health: Review and Recommendations
Frederick T.L. Leong and Zornitsa Kalibatseva

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the comparative effectiveness research (CER) paradigm and its important role in guiding current federal funding of research and examine how this paradigm can be used to guide Asian American mental health research. We will begin with a review of comparative effectiveness research and provide several examples of Asian American studies, which fit into the paradigm. In discussing how we may map the CER onto Asian American mental health research, the problem of differential research infrastructure will be introduced and used to frame our recommendations for future research. We provide some recommendations for using CER in Asian American mental health research by noting the need for multiple approaches due to the problem of differential research infrastructure, and expanding the human capital and data infrastructure. The pros and cons of randomized control trials (RCT) are discussed and an example of a study being planned by the authors is presented to illustrate how to undertake studies on Asian American mental health using the CER paradigm.

Pre-Intake Attrition or Non- Attendance of Intake Appointments at an Ethnic-Specific Mental Health Program for Asian American Children and Adolescents
Phillip D. Akutsu, Garyn K. Tsuru, and Joyce P. Chu

ABSTRACT: This study examines the relationship of client demographic, clinical, client-therapist match, and service program factors to the rate of pre-intake attrition or the non-attendance of intake appointments for 236 Asian American children and adolescents (18 years and younger) at an Asian-oriented ethnic-specific mental health program. The results showed that urgency status or the need for the earliest intake appointment, ethnic match with the prescreening interviewer, and the assignment of the prescreening interviewer as the intake therapist were significantly related to attendance of intake appointments for Asian American children and adolescents. In contrast, older age was found to reduce the likelihood of intake attendance for Asian American youth clients. Specific implications of these results to program evaluation and service improvements in mental health care delivery to Asian American youth groups will be discussed.

Cultural Identity and Conceptualization of Depression among Native Hawaiian Women
Van M. Ta, Puihan J. Chao, and Joseph Keawe’aimoku Kaholokula

ABSTRACT: This study seeks to understand how Native Hawaiian (NH) women identified themselves culturally and conceptualized the causes of depression, and whether there was an association between these two constructs. Among the thirty NH women who were interviewed, a quarter had a high degree of depression symptoms, and a majority expressed a strong/shared identification/affinity with their culture. Our findings suggest that social stressors that contribute to the depressive symptoms of NH women could be, in part, linked to acculturation-related factors associated with U.S. occupation of Hawai‘i and their social status as native people. Future research should examine this relationship further.

Asian Americans and Redistricting: Empowering Through Electoral Boundaries
Paul Ong and Albert J. Lee

ABSTRACT: This article examines the background, history, and outcomes of Asian American engagement in political redistricting. It provides a historical context through an overview of the efforts by African Americans and Latinos, which established a foundation for Asian Americans. Through an analysis of demographic and spatial patterns, the paper argues that Asian Americans face a unique challenge and consequently have had to rely on utilizing a strategy based on the concept of “Community of Common Interest” to defend the integrity of Asian American neighborhoods from being fragmented by redistricting. Although it is difficult to construct Asian-majority districts, the creation of Asian-influence districts has contributed to an increase in the numbers of elected Asian American officials.

Abstract: Intersections of Education

AAPI Nexus: Intersections of Education Volume 8, Number 1 Spring 2010 Abstracts

How Do Pacific Islanders Fare in U.S. Education? : A Look Inside Washington State Public Schools with a Focus on Samoans
By: Shirley Hune and Jeomja Yeo

ABSTRACT: This study examines demographic and educational characteristics of Pacific Islander students in Washington State’s public schools, with a focus on Samoans. Using statewide and Seattle Public Schools data, it uncovers disparities that hinder high school completion and college attendance. Findings suggest that Pacific Islander students in Washington are at a great disadvantage with lower levels of academic performance and school engagement. Samoans perceive discrimination, an uncaring school climate, and generational conflicts as major obstacles to their educational fulfillment. Disaggregated data for Pacific Islanders and case studies of their ethnic groups using qualitative methods provide a more accurate picture of their educational experiences.

State-Mandated Language Classification: A Study of Hmong American Students’ Access to College- Preparatory Curricula
By: Yang Sao Xiong

ABSTRACT: Language minority students, many of whom come from low socioeconomic backgrounds, confront multiple obstacles to academic success and advancement. Yet the intersection between language minority students’ K-12 experiences and their potential to obtain higher education remains understudied. This paper examines how a set of institutional processes and practices— state-mandated classification, testing, and tracking—operates to systematically limit language minority students’ access to college-preparatory curricula. Using data from interviews, this study investigates Hmong American high school and college students’ experiences in English language development and mainstream academic tracks, as well as their perceptions regarding access to college preparatory courses. The evidence suggests that students tracked in English Language Development curricula not only have limited access to key resources, such as college preparatory courses, but also hold lower aspirations about college, compared to those who are in college preparatory tracks. The limitations of this study and implications for future research are discussed.

Model Minority, Model for Whom?: An Investigation of Asian American Students in Science/Engineering
By: Yingyi Ma

ABSTRACT: This study examines the attainment of the bachelor’s degrees in science and engineering among Asian American students, including those who are immigrant children and children with immigrant parents. Using data from National Education Longitudinal Studies: 1988-2000, this study finds that Asian Americans have the highest rate of expectation for majoring in natural science and engineering. After they attend college, they have the highest rate of persistence. Drawing from Bourdieu’s theory of cultural capital and habitus, this article finds that Asian American students are disadvantaged in cultural capital compared with other racial groups from the similar socioeconomic backgrounds, and they tend to formulate certain negative self-perceptions associated with their inclination towards science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. These findings provide further evidence to challenge the model minority thesis, which suggests the choice and the attainment of STEM degrees by Asian American youth is entirely a success story.

Pin@y Educational Partnerships: A Counter-Pipeline to Create Critical Educators
By: Allyson Tintiangco-Cubales, Roderick Daus-Magbual, and Arlene Daus-Magbual

ABSTRACT: This practitioners’ essay is about the programmatic and pedagogical development of Pin@y Educational Partnerships (PEP), a collaborative teacher pipeline that spans kindergarten to the doctoral level. As a “counter-pipeline,” PEP has been able to “grow our own” critical educators and provide a more critical and socially engaged education for all of its students. Since the fall of 2001, PEP has grown to provide services at five public schools with over forty teacher apprentices. This essay aims to provide PEP’s story as a resource for academics and practitioners in the hopes that more partnerships between the university, schools, and the community can be built to address the inequities and gaps that are prevalent in education, especially in the experiences of youth of color.

Abstract: Higher Education

AAPI Nexus: Higher Education Volume 7, Number 2 Fall 2009 Abstracts

“Not in Your Backyard!”: A Community Struggle for the Rights of Immigrant Adult Education in San Francisco’s Chinatown
By: L. Ling-chi Wang

ABSTRACT: This article is a case study of a protracted struggle to establish a branch campus of the San Francisco Community College in Chinatown for thousands of immigrants and working-class adults, focusing mostly on the period since 1997 when the community was slowly politicized and mobilized to fight for their educational rights. Although educational researchers continue to pay close attention to Asian American fights against discriminatory admission policies among the nation’s top colleges and universities, an urgent need to pay more scholarly and political attention to the neediest, poorest, and powerless among Asian Americans clearly exists. To this segment of the Asian American population, access to community college education is a matter of acquiring tools of survival in America. The study illustrates the equal significance of race and class in understanding the development of Asian American communities, how each can be used to obfuscate or disguise the other, and how both can be easily obscured by other issues, especially “progressive” issues or organizations. Asian American community activists and scholars need to pay more attention to class and class conflict with the communities and between the communities and the mainstream society.

Retention and Matriculation Obstacles and Opportunities for Southeast Asian Community College Transfer Students
By: Richard L. Wagoner and Anthony S. Lin

ABSTRACT: This qualitative case study of twenty Southeast Asian students at a flagship public research university suggests that it is illogical to view them as the “model minority” so often described in the literature. Their experience is not the same as that of students from other Asian ethnicities. They struggle with similar issues that challenge other students who come from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. However, the students in this study did discuss two issues that might be more unique to them: immigrant status and the importance of the ethnically based student organization as a means of support and belonging.

“Greasy Grinds” and “Quasi-Robots:” Rhetoric of Exclusions against Jewish and Asian American Students in American Universities
By: Jillian Liesemeyer

ABSTRACT: This study examines the historical comparison between exclusionary quotas against Jewish students in American universities and the recent similarities with the controversy over Asian American enrollment. Through an analysis of historical discourse from within the administration, in the public realm, and from students, parallels are seen between the two incidents. With a more complete understanding of the historical trends in exclusionary practices in universities, policymakers can recognize the current controversy with Asian American enrollment and take on the problem at the source.

AAPIs in the College Access Debate: A Case of Generational and Communication Gaps in the AAPI Education Agenda
By: Oiyan A. Poon

ABSTRACT: Through the presentation of a case study, this resource article argues for the establishment of a national, comprehensive Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) education organization to facilitate communication among educators, students, and community and institutional leaders in order to develop an education policy agenda based on community interests and research. It presents an analysis of the debate over a new University of California (UC) admissions eligibility policy. After discussing how Asian Americans are framed within admissions debates, the article summarizes the new UC policy and presents an analysis of the policy change, addressing concerns raised by two community leaders. This case study demonstrates the need to connect the diverse intergenerational, ethnic, and gendered voices among AAPIs in education.

Asian American and Pacific Islander Serving Institutions: The Motivations and Challenges behind Seeking a Federal Designation
By: Julie J. Park and Mitchell J. Chang

ABSTRACT: This article examines the development of legislation to create a federal designation for Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) serving institutions. Specifically, the article draws from interviews with nineteen policy makers, congressional staffers, and community advocates in order to address their motivations for establishing this designation and the related challenges that they encountered.  Besides the complexities of ushering legislation through Congress, one of the major challenges highlighted includes the lack of political infrastructure for advocating Asian American issues related to education. Recommendations for the future sustainability of federal support for AAPI serving institutions are also discussed.

Abstract: K-12 Education

AAPI Nexus Journal: K-12 Education Volume 7, Number 1 2010 Abstracts

Critical Review of K–12 Filipina/o American Curriculum
By: Patricia Espiritu Halagao, Allyson Tintiangco-Cubales, and Joan May T. Cordova

ABSTRACT: This research study provides the first comprehensive and critical literature review of K–12 Filipina/o American curricula found in formal and informal educational settings. Thirty-three Filipina/o American curricula representing a diverse array of authors, audiences, content, and pedagogical approaches were reviewed. The authors of this study developed a “Critical Framework of Review” rooted in critical pedagogy in order to analyze the historical development of Filipina/o American curricula along with an analysis of major topics, concepts, guiding theoretical frameworks, pedagogical approaches, and outcomes. The review concludes with a discussion and summary of the overarching themes of Filipina/o curricular content, instruction, and impact gained from this study and recommendations for the application, development, distribution, and research of more Filipina/o American K–12 curriculum resources.

When Is a Student an English Learner? An Ethnographic Account of When Students and Educators Invoke the Institutional Identity “English Language Learner”  
By: Leena Neng Her

ABSTRACT: This article complicates the articulation of the achievement gap between native English speakers and English learners (ELs) as a problem rooted in English language proficiency. I challenge the institutional and popular imagination that 5.1 million ELs in the United States are “limited in English proficiency” and whose performance in school can be attributed to limited English proficiency. This argument is drawn from eighteen months of ethnographic fieldwork in a northern California High School where students identified as ELs were not a homogeneous-ability group with similar language needs. Yet there were occasions when educators echoed the concerns of education reformers and policy analysts by glossing the diversity of their EL population. In “explain failure events” the limited English proficiency of ELs was invoked to explain the academic failure of students and the school’s status as an underperforming school. I argue that the continued invocation and gloss of the diversity of ELs participates in the perpetuation of an ideology that ELs are a homogenous student population with similar educational needs. At best, the explanations offered by educators are partial descriptions of the situation of academic failure. I offer alternative explanations of academic failure by exploring the policy and cultural-ideological context of schooling.

The Beliefs of Successful Asian American Pacific Islander Teachers: How Culture Is Embedded In Their Teaching
By: Valerie Ooka Pang

ABSTRACT: Equal educational opportunity is highly dependent on the beliefs and abilities of teachers. However, there is a dearth of research on Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) education and the beliefs of successful AAPI educators. Their contributions have been marginalized in the field of education. This research studied the beliefs of nineteen AAPI educators of a successful low-income (82%), 98 percent minority (75% AAPI and 23% Latino) K–8 school. Student achievement levels are beyond what would be expected with an Academic Performance Index (API) of 860. Any score above 800 is considered exceptional in California. Cultural values are embedded in the belief system of the teachers, and these beliefs result in high teacher personal efficacy and collective efficacy. These then influence teacher behaviors as evidenced by utilized instructional strategies, contributed informal leadership roles, and the long-term stability of the school.

Asian American Dropouts: A Case Study of Vietnamese and Chinese High School Students in a New England Urban School District
By: Phitsamay Sychitkokhong Uy

ABSTRACT: In the world of K–12 education, the growing numbers of dropouts are a major concern. This article examines the dropout rates of Chinese and Vietnamese high school students. Using logistic regression analysis, this article examines the influence of ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) on dropout rates. The distinct contribution of this analysis lies within the intraethnic comparisons within the Asian American student population and its use of longitudinal data. The results of the study support existing research that gender and SES are related to dropout rates. Moreover, an interesting interaction between ethnicity and SES exists.

Learning from the Alternative Asian American Press: A Close Look at Asian Americans & Pacific Islanders in Education through Gidra
By: Jean J. Ryoo

ABSTRACT: Through a careful analysis of the educational concerns and efforts described by Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) activists in Gidra—the first radical Asian American newspaper described as “the journalistic arm of the [Asian American] Movement” (Wei, 1993, 103)—this article explores ways that current educators, public policy writers, and researchers can learn from the stories of the past to improve the state of K–12 education today. Drawing from five years of monthly Gidra publications, this article illustrates parallels between past and current issues in AAPI K–12 education while offering suggestions for action and change.

Chinese Translated IEPs: Do They Do More Harm than Good?
By: Lusa Lo and Joseph Wu

ABSTRACT: Among culturally and linguistically diverse students with disabilities, Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) students comprise the third-largest group. In order to address the diversity of the special education student population and ensure that parents are involved in the decision-making process, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 requires schools to translate students’ Individualized Education Program (IEP) into their parents’ native language. The quality and accuracy of translated IEPs is a critical concern for limited-English-speaking parents who rely on such document for information that they miss in meetings. Discrepancies in the poorly translated documents prevent families from accurately understanding their child’s IEPs and knowing when they should advocate for their children for appropriate services and placement. This article exposes existing problems of translated IEPs and highlights the importance of hiring high-quality translators to help bridge the communication gap between schools and linguistically diverse parents of children with disabilities.

Abstract: Aging

AAPI Nexus Journal: Aging in Asian American and Pacific Islander communities Volume 6, Number 1 2008 Abstracts

A Model for Developing and Implementing a Theory-Driven, Culture-Specific Outreach and Education Program for Korean American Caregivers of People with Alzheimer’s Disease
By: Herb Shon and Ailee Moon

ABSTRACT: The rewards of providing care to an aging family member are numerous, but psychological, social, physical, and economic stressors are often also present. Moreover, community programs and services designed to provide education, resources, and respite to caregivers and therapeutic benefit to seniors, Asian and Pacific Islander American (APIA) caregivers may still confront significant cultural and structural barriers to service use.
This paper is based on a highly successful community-wide outreach and education program conducted in the Koreatown area of Los Angeles, California in 2003 targeting current and future Korean American caregivers. It employed tenets of French and Raven’s original model of social power and interpersonal influence. We present details of how the authors addressed cultural and structural barriers to enhance access to services, as well as recommendations for future research in this area.

Health of Older Asian Americans in California: Findings from California Health Interview Survey (CHIS)  
By: Jong Won Min, Siyon Rhee, Phu Phan, Jessica Rhee, and Thanh Tran

ABSTRACT: Health studies on older Asian Americans based on national and statewide representative data are scarce. This study examined subgroup differences in demographic, socioeconomic and general health status, health conditions, and access to health care services among five groups of Asian Americans aged 60 or older (Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese), using data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey. Significant differences in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health status, chronic conditions, and coverage and use of health care services were found in the five groups, indicating the complexity, diversity, and heterogeneity of older Asian American populations. Practice and research implications are discussed.

Perceptions of dementia among Asian Indian Americans
By: Poorni G. Otilingam and Margaret Gatz

ABSTRACT: We surveyed a convenience sample of 255 Asian Indian Americans (AIAs) aged 18-81 years assessing perceptions of dementia etiology, help-seeking, and treatment, and knowledge of symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In response to a vignette describing the early stages of AD, participants indicated a substantial willingness to seek help. Most participants knew that memory loss was the key symptom of dementia, yet most knowledge items were correctly answered by fewer than half of the sample. Participants who had more knowledge of AD were more likely than those with less knowledge of AD to state that they would seek help for an elderly relative showing symptoms of dementia. Relative to other psychosocial factors, loneliness was highly rated as an etiological factor and keeping mentally active was highly rated as a treatment. This study is the first to document dementia beliefs among AIAs, illustrating the need for culturally-tailored dementia education and care for the AIA population.

Economic Hardship Among Elderly Pacific Islanders
By: Sela V. Panapasa, Voon Chin Phua, and James W. McNally

ABSTRACT: Ensuring the economic well-being of elderly represents a critical issue for social policy. The impacts of financial instability reach beyond an individual’s overall well-being and their family relationships. To date, little is known about the economic status of elderly Native Hawaiians Pacific Islanders (NHOPI). This paper presents baseline information on the poverty status of NHOPI elders and how individual and household characteristics impact their economic well-being. Using bivariate and multivariate analysis the results show that the risks of poverty varies markedly across different Pacific Islander subgroups but that all elder uniformly benefit from coresidence within an extend family household.

Abstract: Model Minority Myth

AAPI Nexus: Model Minority Myth Volume 6, Number 1 Winter/Spring 2008 Abstracts

Awakening the New “Sleeping Giant”?:  Asian American Political Engagement
Paul M. Ong, Melany Dela Cruz-Viesca, and Don T. Nakanishi

ABSTRACT: The 2008 election was a milestone in the emergence of Asian Americans as a factor in American politics, with national television news networks openly discussing and analyzing California’s Asian American voters. Most mainstream analysis, however, had very little in-depth understanding of the population. This essay provides some insights into the absolute and relative size of the Asian American population, along with key demographic characteristics, their participation in electoral politics, some of the barriers the encounter, and future prospects.  The brief is based on analyzing the most recently available data, the 2006 American Community Survey (ACS) and the 2006 November Current Population Survey (CPS). This analysis builds on a previous analytical brief which examined the emergence of Asian Americans as California politics’ new “sleeping giant,” a term that was applied to Hispanics in the 1980s and 1990s because of their rapid growing numbers.
“It’s like we’re just renting over here”:  The Pervasive Experiences of Discrimination of Filipino Immigrant Youth Gang Members in Hawai’i
Su Yeong Kim, Aprile D. Benner, Rena Mae Nalani Reid, Kathleen Ongbongan, Donna Dennerlein, and Deborah K.  Spencer

ABSTRACT: Researchers, service providers, and policymakers must uncover and better understand the issues facing youths in Asian gangs in order to most effectively intervene with appropriate policies and programs.  The present investigation sampled young male Filipino gang members in Hawai’i.  Thematic analyses of the focus group data challenge the commonly held view of racial harmony in Hawai’i.  It appears that racial and social discrimination from peers and authority figures propel Filipino boys to seek out gang membership as a way to protect themselves from being targets of oppression.

The Obesity Epidemic in Chinese American Youth?:  A Literature Review and Pilot Study
Robyn Greenfield Matloff, Doug Brugge, Angela C. Lee, and Roland Tang

ABSTRACT: Despite nearly 12 million Asian Americans living in the United States and continued immigration, this increasingly substantial subpopulation has consistently been left out of national obesity studies. When included in national  studies, Chinese-American children have been grouped together with other Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders or simply as “other,” yielding significantly lower rates of overweight and obesity compared to non-Asians. There is a failure to recognize the ethnic diversity of Asian Americans as well as the effect of acculturation. Results from smaller studies of Chinese American youth suggest that they are adopting lifestyles less Chinese and more Americans and that their share of disease burden is growing. We screened 142 children from the waiting room of a community health center that serves primarily recent Chinese immigrants for height, weight and demographic profile. Body Mass Index was calculated and evaluated using CDC growth charts. Overall, 30.1 percent of children were above the 85th we found being male and being born in the U .S. to be statistically significant for BMI > 85th percentile (p=0.039, p=0.001, respectively). Our results suggest that being overweight in this Chinese American immigrant population is associated with being born in the U.S. A change in public policy and framework for research are required to accurately assess the extent of overweight and obesity in Chinese American children. In particular, large scale data should be stratified by age, sex, birthplace and measure of acculturation to identify those at risk and construct tailored interventions.
Sex and Alcohol on the College Campus: An Assessment of HIV-Risk Behaviors among AAPI College Students  
Jeanne Shimatsu, Eric C. Wat, & Camillia Lui

ABSTRACT: Heavy alcohol use and its related consequences are seen as a top public health issue affecting college students. One of the major consequences of heavy alcohol use is unplanned and unprotected sexual activity which places college students at risk for HIV/AIDS. Little is known about the prevalence of alcohol use and sexual activity among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) college students. The Asian American Drug Abuse Program, Inc. (AADAP) sought to investigate the prevalence of alcohol use and its related problems among this population. The objectives of this exploratory study are twofold: (1) to examine the alcohol and other drug use, HIV-risk behaviors, and attitudes toward seeking services among AAPI college students, and (2) to recommend key strategies for a substance abuse and HIV/AIDS prevention program tailored to AAPI college students. With a convenience sample of 1,043 AAPI college students, we found that 75.7 percent of students currently drink alcohol with 20.6 percent being frequent users. In addition, frequent users of alcohol are seven times more likely to be sexually active than non-users. AAPI college students have a high knowledge of HIV transmission, yet having adequate knowledge does not seem to deter students from engaging in risky behaviors such as engaging in sexual activity after drinking or having unprotected sex. While further research of AAPI college students is needed, we recommend that a substance abuse and HIV prevention program be specifically tailored to AAPI college students.  An intervention should be culturally tailored with AAPI-specific messages, peer-based, and allow for space where students can learn substance use resistance skills and improve HIV prevention behaviors.

Abstract: Welfare Reform

AAPI Nexus: Welfare Reform Volume 5, Number 2 Winter/Spring 2007 Abstracts

“Whose School District is this?”: Vietnamese Americans and Coalitional Politics in Orange County, California
Linda Vo

ABSTRACT: This essay discusses important lessons for community organizing based on the efforts by the Vietnamese American community in Orange County to have their voices heard in the decision-making process at the school district level.  I document their struggle to reinstate Dr. KimOanh Nguyen-Lam, an experienced educator who is fluent in English, Vietnamese, Spanish, and French, as Superintendent of the Westminster School District (WSD) when her job offer was retracted without justification by the school board one week after she was hired.  In this majority-minority school district, with Latinos at 38% and Asian Americans at 37%, she would have been the first Vietnamese American Superintendent of a public school in the country.  I examine how community leaders organized multi-ethnic and -racial coalitions, engaged in collective protest, and focused their activities on electoral politics.  The conflict revolves around which teachers are hired and promoted and who controls the content of the curriculum; yet ultimately, the Nguyen-Lam controversy represents the struggle over the allocation of public school resources and political power in a racially diverse school district.  Key lessons can be learned from these events, especially the challenges of building coalitions within the Vietnamese community and creating multiracial alliances with the Latino community, which can inform future coalition efforts by refugee and immigrant populations.
From Merging Histories to Emerging Identities: An “Asian” Museum as a Site of Pan-ethnic Identity Promotion
Chong-suk Han and Edward Echtle

ABSTRACT: In this paper, we explore the significance of the Wing Luke Asian Museum (WLAM) in Seattle, Washington as a site where pan-ethnic Asian American identity can be promoted by analyzing the strategies employed by the staff and artists of the WLAM to promote, foster and disseminate a larger Asian Pacific Islander American pan-ethnic identity. We argue that museums are a significant site that can “provide a setting for persons of diverse Asian backgrounds to establish social ties and to discuss their common problems and experiences.”

Surveying Southeast Asian Welfare Participants:  Examples, Challenges, and Future Directions
Evelyn Blumenberg, Lily K. Song, and Paul M. Ong

ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have examined the effects of welfare reform on the employment and caseload dynamics of welfare recipients in California. Yet, despite their overrepresentation among welfare recipients, Southeast Asians have received relatively little scholarly attention. This study explores one explanation for this finding-the challenges of collecting data on Southeast Asian welfare recipients and, in particular, the difficulties associated with surveying this population group.  These difficulties include attracting adequate funding to recruit sizeable Southeast Asian samples,; translating survey materials into Southeast Asian languages,; and effectively administering surveys among a highly mobile population group with low English language proficiency.  To strengthen research on this important but understudied population group, researchers must build political and financial support for such research; develop appropriate research designs informed by an understanding of the characteristics of Southeast Asian families, communities, and welfare recipients; rely on refugee support organizations to help overcome resistance to participating in survey research; and make the data available to interested scholars to maximize the impact of these data collection efforts.

Welfare Reform and the Delivery of Welfare-to-Work Programs to AAPIs:  What Works? 
Julian Chun-Chung Chow, Grace Yoo, and Catherine Vu

ABSTRACT: The passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (PRWORA) of 1996 has major implications for low-income Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) populations. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the research currently examining the impact of welfare reform on AAPI recipients and the welfare-to-work services available to this population.  This article highlights AAPI participation and their timing-out rates in California’s CalWORKs program and their barriers to transitioning to work.  Four welfare-to-work program models and recommendations are presented to illustrate strategies that can be used to address the unique needs of AAPI in order to alleviate their high risk for timing-out: one-stop-shops, transitional jobs programs, providing comprehensive and family focused services, and additional research and evaluation of programs specific to assisting the AAPI population on CalWORKs.

Building Community Capacity For Rapid Response to State Health Crises:  Learning from HIV/AIDS among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders  (AAPIs) 
Lois M. Takahashi and Michelle G. Magalong

ABSTRACT: Health crises have become a significant threat to the well-being and quality of life of California’s residents, with SARS and avian influenza the most obvious recent examples of such threats. The State of California has engaged in significant efforts at the state and local levels to devise plans and strategies to address emerging health threats, including rapid spread of infectious disease and bioterrorism, however, there remain significant gaps, particularly concerning the rapidity and effectiveness of communication to California’s growing immigrant population. We argue that enhancing community-based organization (CBO) capacity to address health crises such as potential pandemics is a necessary yet overlooked component. This article uses capacity building regarding HIV/AIDS prevention in the Asian American and Pacific Islander communities in Southern California as a new model of emergency preparedness, one that leverages the untapped resources in CBOs.

Abstract: Art & Cultural Institutions

AAPI Nexus: Employment Volume 5, Number 1 Winter/Spring 2007 Abstracts

The Challenges of Displaying “Asian American”: Curatorial Perspectives and Critical Approaches
By: ShiPu Wang

Abstract: This essay delineates the issues concerning AAPI art exhibitions from a curator’s perspective, particularly in response to the changing racial demographics and economics of the past decades. A discussion of practical, curatorial problems offers the reader an overview of the obstacles and reasons behind the lack of exhibitions of AAPI works in the United States. It is the author’s hope that by understanding the challenges particular to AAPI exhibitions, community leaders, and patrons will direct future financial support to appropriate museum operations, which in turn will encourage more exhibitions and research of the important artistic contribution of AAPI artists to American art.

Libraries as Contested Community and Cultural Space: The Bruggemeyer Memorial Library of Monterey Park, California
By: Clara M. Chu and Todd Honma

ABSTRACT: In the City of Monterey Park, a sleepy city, east of downtown Los Angeles, the late 1970s and the1980s marked a dramatic demographic shift from predominantly White to Asian American. Who had economic and political power was publicly played out through struggles between the city council and the business sectors. An unlikely locus for political struggle was the Bruggemeyer Memorial Library. In the late-1980s, what many might consider to be a neutral agency that collects, organizes and disseminates information, the public library became the battleground to (re)claim community, access and representation of Asian Americans in Monterey Park. By contextualizing the library as civic space, this paper explores dominant U.S. hegemonic ideologies and political agendas reproduced in cultural institutions, such as libraries.

Seeds for Succession: A Personal Case Study in Leadership Development and Succession Planning
By: Leslie Ito

ABSTRACT: Leslie Ito shares not only her personal journey as she leads her cultural organization through a sudden leadership transition, but the lessons learned through this process.

Small Numbers / Big City: Innovative Presentations of Pacific Islander Art and Culture in Arizona
By: John Rosa

ABSTRACT: This resource paper provides an overview of how the small but growing Pacific Islander and Asian American community in Phoenix has sustained, developed, and preserved its culture and art in the absence of a permanent AAPI art or cultural museum. This article gives examples of such alternative formats and includes details on dance, music, and other folk cultural practices. Metropolitan statistical areas with AAPI populations comparable to Phoenix include Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Dallas. Phoenix community groups use small, temporary displays at annual AAPI cultural festivals. One approach is a ?museum on wheels? ? a used tour bus filled with certified reproductions of artifacts on loan from the Bishop Museum in Honolulu. Native Hawaiians also collaborate with the more numerous Native American organizations that can provide venues for indigenous arts. Universities and state humanities councils are frequent sources of funding for AAPI artists. MSAs with Pacific Islander populations most comparable to Phoenix (in the range of 10,000 to 15,000) are the U.S. Southwestern cities of Las Vegas and Salt Lake City. Pacific Islanders in these cities might be most likely to employ display formats and strategies similar to those used in Phoenix.

It’s Alive!  Sounds for the Vault
By: Lewis Kawahara

ABSTRACT: A questionnaire was sent to 93 Asian American Pacific Islander organizations and museums throughout the United States. The questionnaire queried the status of Asian American Pacific Islander sound collections that are housed by Asian American Pacific Islander community-based organizations and museums. The questionnaire asked the Respondents basic questions as well as the types of formats used, storage of sound-related materials, and collections management questions. In conclusion recommendations were made on caring and maintaining an Asian American Pacific Islander sound collection.

Assessment of the State of Ethnic-Specific Health Survey Data
By: Nadereh Pourat, Ninez A. Ponce, and Roberta Wyn

ABSTRACT: Progress in Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) health data had begun by the 1990s, although the gains have been temporal and localized. This resource paper reviews the Hawai’i Health Interview Survey, the California Health Interview Survey, and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) with specific data on AAPIs. We then provide an analysis of the NHIS to illustrate its usefulness and limitations in estimating access to health services of three socioeconomically similar AAPI subgroups– Chinese, Filipinos, and Koreans. The results underscore the need to disaggregate AAPI data. In tandem with recent improvements in the NHIS, other states with a large AAPI population should invest in ethnic-specific oversampling and in-language survey efforts similar to what has been done in California.

Abstract: Youth

API Nexus: Employment Volume 4, Number 2 Fall/Summer 2006 Abstracts

Asian Americans on the Streets: Strategies for Prevention and Intervention
James Diego Vigil, Tomson H. Nguyen, and Jesse Cheng

ABSTRACT: Notably lacking in the literature on Vietnamese and Cambodian youth gangs in the United States and particularly southern California have been solutions that address the underlying causative factors of gang involvement. Relying on life histories collected over a span of fifteen years, the authors propose a multi-faceted prevention and intervention strategy that includes the community and schools to heighten cultural awareness for children and parents. It is also recommended that policies take into account nuanced differences between Asian communities and bring together multiple stakeholders including officials and hard-core gang members to improve communicative problems that have resulted in gang-policy failures.

Self-Reported Rates and Risk Factors of Cambodian, Chinese, Lao/Mien, and Vietnamese Youth Delinquency
Thao N. Le and Judy L. Wallen

ABSTRACT: General self-reported rates of violence and studies identifying risk factors for delinquency and serious violence have been limited for Asian, particularly Southeast Asian youth. Additionally, the role of psychosocial-cultural related factors such as individualism/collectivism, intergenerational/intercultural conflict, and ethnic identity in delinquency has largely been neglected. In a sample of 329 Cambodian, Chinese, Lao/Mien, and Vietnamese youth, robust risk factors for serious violence (aggravated assault, robbery, gang, rape) included peer delinquency, prior arrest, and victimization. In addition, cultural factors such as second generation status, individualism, and intergenerational/intercultural conflict also significantly increased the odds of serious violence, whereas factors that decreased the odds included collectivism and school achievement. For family/partner violence (hit a family member or boyfriend/girlfriend), the strongest risk factors were victimization and parent discipline. Demographics, individual, and peer domains contributed more explanatory variance for serious violence, while individual and parental domains contributed more explanatory variance for family/partner violence. Consistent with official statistics, rates of serious violence among Southeast Asian youth were higher than for Chinese youth.

The Role of the Family in Asian American Juvenile Delinquency
Anh-Luu T. Huynh-Hohnbaum

ABSTRACT: Using the family delinquency theory as a framework, this study explores family characteristics as predictors for delinquent acts against property and persons by AAPI adolescents. The weighted survey data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health is a nationally representative sample of seventh to twelfth graders. Parental monitoring served as a protective factor for delinquent acts against property. Family structure was a predictive factor for delinquent acts against persons. Overall, the findings partially supported the family delinquency theory, underscoring the importance of developing culturally appropriate theories. Implications for the development of intervention and prevention programs are discussed.

“You got to do so much to actually make it”: Gender, Ethnicity, and Samoan Youth in Hawai‘i
David Tokiharu Mayeda, Lisa Pasko, Meda Chesney-Lind

ABSTRACT: Although a burgeoning literature exists examining the intersections of gender and race in adolescent research, little attention has been paid to Asian American or Pacific Island youth, and this is especially true for girls from these groups. This study surveys the issues confronting Samoan adolescents, with a particular emphasis on the problems facing girls. Utilizing focus group and interview data with Samoan community leaders, other key informants, parents, and adolescent girls (N = 42), this study highlights some of the ways Samoan girls negotiate a social terrain characterized by both racism and sexism. Participants discuss unfavorable biases in schools, unequal domestic gender roles, western legal confines, and a lack of positive role models as critical issues for Samoan girls in contemporary society.

Profiling Incarcerated Asian and Pacific Islander Youth: Statistics Derived from California Youth Authority Administrative Data
Isami Arifuku, Delores D. Peacock, and Caroline Glesmann

ABSTRACT: This article provides data about youth in the California Youth Authority (CYA) and compares and contrasts Asian and Pacific Islander (API) youth with other wards with regard to youth characteristics, commitment offenses, incarceration, parole, and discharge. The data shows that although API constituted 5% of the total population in February of 2002, some API ethnicities are vastly overrepresented in the CYA population and have had high levels of gang involvement. At the same time, API wards had the highest percentage with honorable discharges and the lowest percentage with a dishonorable discharge from CYA.

Thalassemia and Asian Americans: Living and Coping with Uncertainty
Deborah Woo

ABSTRACT: Thalassemia is a potentially life-threatening genetic blood disease for which Asians in California are at highest risk, compared to other population groups. Mandatory screening at birth is how most cases are discovered. This paper focuses on chronic forms of thalassemia and what it means for patients and their families to live with the illness. The goal is to increase public awareness about thalassemia and to stimulate discussion about social interventions that might enable individuals to lead healthier lives.