Category Archives: Abstracts

AAPI Nexus: Special Issue on AAPIs 2040, 14:2 (Fall 2016)

Abstracts for “Special Issue on AAPIs 2040”
Volume 14, Number 2, Fall 2016

Uniting to Move Forward: Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders in 2040
By Richard Calvin Chang

Abstract:  This essay examines the importance of disaggregating Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander data, issues currently faced by NHPI communities, and where NHPI communities could be in 2040. Projected demographic trends may exacerbate challenges faced by NHPIs in areas such as health, education, income, incarceration, housing, and immigration. The impact of climate change, technological innovations, and the United States’ shift towards a majority-minority status on NHPI communities are also analyzed. Three recommendations for improving the position of NHPIs in 2040 are provided: (1) Address the needs of an increasingly diverse NHPI community; (2) develop community capacity for civic engagement; and (3) invest in leadership development and NHPI youth.

Building Power: Asian American and Pacific Islander Women in 2040
By Jennifer Chou, Priscilla Huang, and Miriam W. Yeung

Abstract:  Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women will constitute the majority of AAPIs by 2040. However, the AAPI women of 2040 will more likely be low-income, South Asian or Southeast Asian, and second generation than the AAPI women of today (Ramakrishnan and Ahmad, 2014b). This article explores the implications that these shifts in the demographic identity of AAPI women will have on the future electoral process. We also explore strategies for building the power and influence of AAPI women in communities and at policy-making tables.

The Future of the LGBTQ Asian American and Pacific Islander Community in 2040
By Glenn D. Magpantay

Abstract:  This article reviews the implications of the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population growth over the next twenty-five years on the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) AAPI community. After reviewing some initial considerations of the census data and the history of the LGBTQ rights movement, it then details possible changes in substantive rights and protections for LGBTQ AAPI people in the areas of immigration, nondiscrimination laws, and family-building policies. It discusses anticipated changes in AAPI attitudes toward LGBTQ people and the impact on LGBTQ AAPI community infrastructure.

Suspicious People: Profiling and Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
By Navdeep Singh and Jasbir K. Bawa

Abstract:  The experience of the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) community was defined by suspicion following the attacks on September 11, 2001. An era of national security has altered the relationship between the government, the public, and minority communities. This article explores the development of the current profiling paradigm and its impact on the AAPI community. It offers an assessment of the role the profiling paradigm will play as the AAPI community grows over the next twenty years and offers perspectives on how changing demographics can be used to address racial and religious profiling.

Asian Americans and the Media
By Daniel M. Mayeda

Abstract:  The representation of Asian Americans in mainstream media has undergone dramatic change in the past two decades, and this can be expected to continue in the next twenty-five years in all forms of entertainment and media. A combination of the rapidly increasing numbers of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs), the growing recognition by traditional media of the economic power of AAPI consumers, and the ease of entry into content creation and distribution afforded to new voices by new technologies will likely result by 2040 in a rich diversity of stories by and about Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race AAPIs.

Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders Excel in Business but Not without Risks
By Bill Imada

Abstract:  In recent years, data has shown that there has been significant growth in Asian American Pacific Islander-owned (AAPI) enterprises. Driven by demographic changes, related in large part to the history of immigration policy, the AAPI population has been growing, and this has been accompanied by AAPI innovators and entrepreneurs leaving greater marks on American society and the U.S. economy. This growth, however, is not without risks and threats. The legacy of being “othered” by mainstream society means that AAPI success in business and in the corporate landscape can be met with resentment and criticism. This article explores the history of AAPI entrepreneurship and current trends. It also examines the challenges that the community may continue to face and offers recommendations on how to ensure continued growth and expanded opportunities for AAPIs in business.

Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders and Philanthropy in 2040
By Andrew Ho

Abstract:  The trends we see in today’s philanthropy will have significant effects on the philanthropy of 2040, especially for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. As the blended, multiracial Asian American population continues to increase, the very definition of Asian American philanthropy is up for grabs. Add in the trend of giving while living, the increase in the blurring of philanthropic forms and structures, and the ubiquity of technology, social media, and connectedness, and you have a future of philanthropy in 2040 that is more diverse, global, and participatory than the present day.

Cultural Preservation Policy and Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Reimagining Historic Preservation in Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities
By Michelle G. Magalong and Dawn Bohulano Mabalon

Abstract:  Historic and cultural preservation is a significant issue for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) seeking to safeguard important historic places, preserve unique cultural practices, and receive official recognition of civic contributions. However, few sites associated with AAPI history and cultures have been recognized as landmarks. With the fiftieth anniversary of the Historic Preservation Act of 1966, the Department of the Interior and the National Park Service have embarked on an Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Initiative to explore how the legacy of AAPIs can be recognized, preserved, and interpreted for future generations. To understand what we could be commemorating on the act’s fifieth anniversary, this essay will offer policy recommendations for preserving, landmarking, and interpreting AAPI historic and cultural sites into 2040 and beyond.

Reflections on the Formation and Future of Asian American Studies
By Linda Trinh Võ

Abstract:  The ongoing demographic growth of the Asian American population enhances foundational support for Asian American studies; however, it also poses complex challenges for the formulation and direction of the field. Asian American studies has been shaped by transnational and regional economic and political conditions, as well as by the receptiveness and limitations of the academy, which has led to uneven disciplinary and institutional manifestations. This essay specifically analyzes what impact the transforming Asian American population has had on the formation of the field of Asian American studies and how the projected demographic growth will shape its future academic trajectory.

AAPI Nexus: Special Issue on AAPIs 2040

Abstracts for “Special Issue on AAPIs 2040”
Volume 14, Number 1, Spring 2016

The Future of Pacific Islander America in 2040

By Paul Ong, Elena Ong, and Jonathan Ong

Abstract: This resource paper analyzes the growth of the Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) population over the next quarter century based on projections from the U.S. Census Bureau and supplementary estimates by the authors. Overall, this population will increase from about 1.5 million in 2015 to nearly 2.3 million in 2040, about three times greater than the increase for the total U.S. population. Most NHOPIs are indigenous, but immigrants comprise about a fifth of the population. This group is relatively young, but median age will increase over time. Youth comprised about a third of the population in 2015 and over a quarter in 2014. The elderly share will nearly double to about one in eight by 2040.  NHOPIs are more likely to be multiracial than any other racial group, and NHOPIs of mixed-race will comprise over half the population a quarter century from now.

The Future of Asian America in 2040

By Jonathan Ong, Paul Ong, and Elena Ong

Abstract: This Resource Paper analyzes the growth of the Asian American (AA) population over the next quarter century based on projections from the U.S. Census Bureau and supplementary estimates by the authors. The number of Asian Americans will increase from 20.5 million in 2015 to 35.7 million in 2040, making them the fastest-growing racial population in the nation. Like the nation as a whole, the AA population will age over the next quarter century, with youth declining from a quarter to a little more than a fifth of the AA population and the elderly increasing from a tenth to about a sixth. Immigrants will continue to be a majority of Asian Americans, but their share will decline from two-thirds to one half. After 2040, U.S.-born AAs (those who are Asian alone and from mixed-race backgrounds) will comprise a majority of the population. Another significant change will be the growth of multiracial Asian Americans, increasing from a tenth of the population 1990 to a sixth in 2040.

Asian American Pacific Islander Economic Justice

By Paul M. Ong

Abstract: This essay examines economic inequality and poverty among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) and their participation in safety-net programs. Income and wealth disparities have increased dramatically over the last few decades, reaching levels not seen since the 1920s. One of the consequences has been an inability to ameliorate poverty, particularly among children. While Asian Americans have been depicted as outperforming all other racial groups, they have not surpassed non-Hispanic whites after accounting for regional differences in the cost of living. Moreover, a relatively large proportion of AAPIs is at the bottom end of the economic ladder. Many impoverished AAPIs rely on antipoverty programs to survive, but most still struggle because of a frayed safety net. Most experts believe that inequality will persist or worsen; consequently, it is likely that the absolute number of poor AAPIs will grow over the next quarter century. Addressing the problems of societal inequality and AAPI poverty will require political action to rectify underlying structural and institutional flaws, and a renewed commitment to ensuring all have a decent standard of living.

No Data, No Justice: Moving beyond the Model Minority Myth in K–12 Education

By Rita Pin Ahrens and Souvan Lee

Abstract: Due to the “model minority” myth, Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) students are often left out of the national discourse on educational equity. As a result, obtaining more data on AAPI students (i.e., data disaggregation) has become the primary civil rights issue in education for AAPIs. This paper examines challenges facing AAPIs in elementary and secondary public schools, passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act, and progress made to disaggregate data on AAPI students. The authors highlight additional opportunities and strategies for advocates at the local and national level to improve educational outcomes for all AAPI students by 2040.

Educational Opportunity and the Missing Minority in Higher Education: Changing the National Narrative of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by 2040

By Leilani Matasaua Pimentel and Neil Horikoshi

Abstract: For nearly half a century, the model minority myth has dominated perceptions of Asian American college students and masked educational disparities among the nearly fifty ethnic groups that comprise the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities. This essay challenges the model minority narrative by presenting the narrative of the missing minority—outlining how this alternative narrative was influenced by the creation of federal AAPI-serving institution legislation in 2008. The authors explore Asian American Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institution recognition, how it has provided a framework to further support AAPI higher education outcomes, and what factors will affect the national narrative in 2040.

Asian American Workers and Unions: Current and Future Opportunities for Organizing Asian American and Pacific Islander Workers

By Johanna Hester, Kim Geron, Tracy Lai, and Paul M. Ong

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to explore the current and future potential for engaging Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) in the labor movement by 2040. Because of the limitations of the data and the scope of the projections, we initially analyze Asian American participation in the labor market, so we can later discuss our vision and trajectory for engaging AAPI workers in the labor movement by 2040.

Aging in America: Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in 2040

By Heather Chun, Eun Jeong Lee, Wesley Lum, and Ashley Muraoka-Mamaclay

Abstract: Throughout the United States ten thousand people turn sixty-five years old every day (AARP, 2015a). By 2040, one in five U.S. residents will be sixty-five years or older, outnumbering children fifteen and younger for the first time in our nation’s history (AARP, 2015a; Congressional Budget Office, 2013; U.S. Census Bureau, 2014). Between 2015 and 2040, Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) older adults are the fastest-growing aging group. There are four strategies to strengthen the economic and health security of AAPI older adults nationwide by 2040: (1) disaggregate data to understand variations between AAPI subpopulations; (2) provide accessible services that are culturally and linguistically appropriate; (3) adapt mainstream solutions for financial security; and (4) innovate long-term services and support.

Forging a Path Toward Health Equity in 2040

By Priscilla Huang, Kathy Ko Chin, Jeffrey B. Caballero, DJ Ida, and Myron Dean Quon

Abstract: Dramatic shifts in the demographic makeup of the U.S. population in 2040 will pose new challenges and opportunities for policy makers, researchers, and community members working to address health and health care inequities. Traditional approaches utilizing a health disparities framework may not be enough to address the health needs of an increasingly diverse and multiracial population of Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs). This article provides an overview of the current and projected health and health care needs of Asian Americans and NHPIs in 2040, and proposes new policy solutions and frameworks for addressing these complex needs.

Asian American Pacific Islander Environmental Leadership for 2040

By Charles Lee

Abstract: Climate change is an unprecedented issue that shapes the era in in which we now live. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have a stake in environmental justice because AAPIs are disproportionately impacted by climate change. This essay examines how the climate crisis affects AAPIs, and provides examples of the leadership AAPIs have demonstrated to address climate and social equity concerns. These leadership lessons are relevant to the leadership role that AAPIs can play now and in the future, for 2040 and beyond.

Reimagining Immigration for a New Generation

By Erin Oshiro

Abstract: Do Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have a stake in the immigration reform discussion? What types of immigration laws and policies would best serve our community’s diverse interests? This article first looks at how AAPIs continue to be impacted by federal immigration laws. Second, it identifies specific immigration policies that need reform and suggests some potential creative policy solutions. Finally, it offers ideas for how—and why—AAPIs can continue to engage in the fight for immigration reform.

From Citizens to Elected Representatives: The Political Trajectory of Asian American Pacific Islanders by 2040

By Christine Chen, James S. Lai, Karthick Ramakrishnan, and Alton Wang

Abstract: The political power of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) has increased steadily in the United States. By 2040, one in ten Americans will be AAPI, and the number of Asian Americans registered to vote will have doubled (Ong, Ong and Ong, 2015). This section examines the growing AAPI electorate and projects a trajectory for AAPI civic engagement and political participation from now until 2040.  By looking at trends and projections for citizenship, voter registration, voter turnout, elected officials, and political infrastructure, the authors illustrate that AAPI political empowerment will have even a greater influence on the future of American politics.

AAPI Nexus: Asian American, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander Communities and Federally Qualified Health Centers

Abstracts for “Special Issue on Asian American, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander Communities and Federally Qualified Health Centers”
Volume 12, Number 1-2, Fall 2014

Creating Community Criteria for Research Participation at Community Health Centers 

By Mary Frances Oneha, Ho`oipo DeCambra, Liss Ieong, Hui Song, Thu Quach, Rosy Chang-Weir, Ninez A. Ponce, Rachelle Enos, Shao-Chee Sim, and Marjorie Kagawa-Singer

Abstract:  Research conducted to benefit communities is often done without community involvement, threatening its relevance for the groups the studies purport to serve. A great need exists for education of both researchers and community members on how research can be more appropriately conducted in partnership with community members. This paper presents Community Criteria for Research Participation developed by community health centers (CHCs) with input from academic partners to support CHCs’ capacity to conduct research of community significance.

Building a Community Health Center Data Warehouse to Promote Patient-Centered Research in the Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders Population 

By Vivian Li, Rosy Chang Weir, Thu Quach, Suzanne Gillespie, Mary Ann McBurnie, Ady Oster, Reesa Laws, Kari Alperovitz-Bichell, Erin O’Brien Kaleba, Christine Nelson

Abstract:  In 2010, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) established the Community Health Applied Research Net- work (CHARN) to build research infrastructure and capacity at community health centers (CHCs) and to promote comparative effectiveness research in these safety-net settings. A data warehouse with standardized data was created to capture, manage, and share patient-level data with all eighteen participating CHCs, including four CHCs primarily serving Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Other Pacific Islanders (AANHOPI). AANHOPI patients face unique health risks, yet these large and diverse populations are historically understudied. The CHARN data warehouse provides important opportunities for understanding the health needs of this heterogeneous population.

Clinical Quality Indicators of Asian American,Native Hawaiian, and Other Pacific Islander Patients Seen at Health Resources and Services Administration-Supported Community Health Centers 

By Alek Sripipatana and Quyen Ngo-Metzger

Abstract:  The Health Resources and Services Administration supports federally qualified health centers that provide health care services to more than 21.7 million low-income and medically underserved patients, the majority being racial/ethnic minorities. Nationally, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) represent 1.3 percent of all health center patients; however, NHPIs constitute more than half of the patients for some health centers. National data of health center clinical quality indicators were analyzed to explore potential differences between Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian American patients. Even among a group of medically underserved patients, health disparities were found in NHPIs, illustrating the relevance of disaggregating data in identifying idiosyncratic differences deserving culturally appropriate interventions.

Early Implementation Lessons on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Outreach and Enrollment Efforts in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities 

By Regina Lee, Jen Lee, David Aguilar, Betty Cheng, Kevin Lee, and Thu Quach

Abstract:  Enacted in 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) intended to make health insurance coverage more affordable and accessible for millions of Americans. However, achieving this goal requires significant targeted, culturally and linguistically appropriate outreach and education efforts for vulnerable communities, such as low-income, underserved Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. This article describes multiple innovative strategies and approaches used by two well-established community health centers, Charles B. Wang Community Health Center in New York and Asian Health Services in California, as well as the early-stage impacts of outreach and enrollment assistance for the state exchange marketplaces promoting the ACA.

Risk Adjustment with Social Determinants of Health and Implications for Federally Qualified Health Centers under the Affordable Care Act 

By Thu Quach, Todd P. Gilmer, Sherry Hirota, and Ninez A. Ponce

Abstract:  Adjustments for the underlying differences in risks among patients in payment approaches has been widely used and accepted; yet current risk adjustment approaches are limited because they do not account for the various social determinants of health (SDH) that can also influence health outcomes. This can have implications for providers serving disadvantaged populations. This article discusses why the inclusion of SDH in the formulas for risk adjustment is important for federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and recommends ways in which FQHCs can be leaders in informing payment reform policies.

Impact of a P4P and HIT Program to Reduce Emergency Department Hospital Utilization at Federally Qualified Health Centers in Hawai‘i 

By Rosy Chang Weir, Heather Law, Mary Frances Oneha, Sang Mee Lee, and Alyna T. Chien

Abstract:  Pay for performance (P4P) and health information technology (HIT) have been used to improve health care quality, but few studies examine interventions combining P4P with HIT support at federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). An intervention comparison, pre-post study was conducted to determine the effect of a P4P+HIT intervention on emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. While ED utilization decreased in both intervention and comparison groups, there were no significant differences in ED or hospital utilization between intervention and comparison groups. Additional time or support above and beyond P4P+HIT may be necessary to improve the health care provided by FQHCs to underserved communities in Hawai‛i.

Addressing Barriers in Health Equity through Innovations in Health Information Technology: A Health Center’s Experiences in Implementing a Chinese Language Patient Portal 

By Christopher Mei, Esther B. Kim, Lynn Sherman, Shao-Chee Sim, Kai Yeung, Candy Poon, Maggie Wong, and Nick Egleson

Abstract:  Patient portals have the potential to empower patients to be more knowledgeable and proactive about their health. Implementation of patient portals has become increasingly critical at primary care sites that serve underserved communities, where there is a growing need for linguistically appropriate electronic access. The Charles B. Wang Community Health Center has recently developed a linguistically appropriate patient portal with the goal of providing increased access to its majority Chinese American patient population with low English proficiency and literacy levels. This article will discuss experiences learned from implementing a Chinese Language Patient Portal that addresses socioeconomic barriers and disparities in health care access.

Hawai‘i Patient-Centered Health Care Home Project: A Collaborative Partnership between Four Hawai‘i Federally Qualified Health Centers, AlohaCare, and the Hawai‘i Primary Care Association 

By Mary Frances Oneha, Robert Hirokawa, and Cristina Vocalan

Abstract:  Four Hawai‘i Federally Qualified Health Centers, a Managed Care Organization, and the Hawai‘i Primary Care Association established a partnership to pilot a unique Patient-Centered Health Care Home model. All sites were successful in implementing care coordination and a patient registry. A cohort of 432 patients with a diagnosis of diabetes and/or depression was activated into the program. Sixty percent of the cohort was Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, or Asian. Patients with uncontrolled diabetes lowered their HbA1c by one point (p < .05), and patients with severe depression lowered their PHQ-9 scores by 4.6 points (p < .05).

The Role of the Patient-Centered Medical Home in Addressing Hepatitis B Perinatal Transmission: Charles B. Wang Community Health Center’s Hep B Moms Program 

By Isha Weerasinghe, Nicole Bannister, Vivian Huang, Chari Cohen, Jeffrey Caballero, and Su Wang

Abstract:  Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Each year, approximately twenty-five thousand infants are born to HBV-infected mothers, and one thou- sand newborns become infected (Barbosa et al., 2014; Ward, 2008). To prevent HBV perinatal transmission and facilitate care management, health centers should utilize a patient-centered medical home model that provides coordinated, comprehensive, and culturally appropriate services. One model is the Hep B Moms Program at Charles B. Wang Community Health Center in New York City.

Setting Up a Medical Home for Chinese Immigrant Families with Children with Special Health Care Needs: A Step-Wise Approach

By Sherry Shao Fen Huang and Loretta Young Au

Abstract:  Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) require health services beyond what generally is required. CSHCN from immigrant families face additional challenges, including cultural, language, racial, and socioeconomic barriers. Federally qualified health centers provide an ideal setting to treat these children, pro- viding comprehensive, family-centered care that fits their linguistic and cultural needs. This article describes the development of a National Committee for Quality Assurance level 3 medical home, addressing cultural perspectives and barriers to quality care for the Chinese immigrant community by highlighting Edward Wagner’s Chronic Care Model, medical home criteria, electronic health records, parent engagement, staff development, and community collaboration.

Improving Access to Care for Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities by Integrating Primary Care into a Behavioral Health Setting: Lessons from the Field

By Michael B. McKee and Yoon Joo Han

Abstract:  International Community Health Services, a Federally Qualified Health Center, and Asian Counseling and Referral Service, a multi-social service agency, collaborated to develop a unique integrated model of care for Asian American and Pacific Islander patients with limited English proficiency and severe mental illness. In this practitioner’s essay, we explore lessons learned from a five- year demonstration project and discuss future implications related to health care reform and applicability to similar programs. Keys to the success of the project were committing to partnership, transforming staff roles, developing systems of documentation, adjusting productivity standards, and adapting for cultural competency.

Integrating Primary Care and Behavioral Health: A Nurse Practitioner’s Perspective

By Le Thai and Anne Saw

Abstract:  Health equity for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) requires collaborative partnerships between primary care and behavioral health organizations. This paper presents the experiences and perspectives of a nurse practitioner in a large-scale pilot program to integrate primary care and behavioral health between an FQHC and a community mental health center, both serving predominantly Asian immigrant populations. This paper discusses lessons learned through program implementation and provides insights on developing a truly integrated system involving equal and full cooperation across disciplines to provide quality and holistic care for patients with SMI. Implications for clinical practice and policy are discussed.

Challenges to Improve Health Care Access for Cambodians

By Mariko Kahn and Elisa Nicholas

Abstract:  This resource paper examines the challenges faced by a mental health contract provider and a federally qualified health center in Long Beach to integrate these two systems of care to provide better health care to Cambodians. The issues of disparity, stigma, and cultural barriers prevalent in this underserved community were identified and strategies to address the barriers were implemented. The resulting product illuminates many of the challenges that integrated care presents to ethnic communities.

Opening Access for Burmese and Karen Immigrant and Refugee Populations in California: A Blueprint for Integrated Health Service Expansion to Emerging Asian Communities

By Kimberly S. G. Chang, Joan Jeung, Phyllis Pei, Kwee Say, Julia Liou, Huong Le, and George Lee

Abstract:  This article describes: 1) internal and external factors enabling the expansion of health care access to Burmese and Karen refugees, 2) operational processes required to expand integrated primary health care services to this emerging community, 3) the importance of culturally and linguistically competent services that incorporate prior experiences of forced immigration, and 4) les- sons learned and what to expect when expanding health care access to new populations within a federally qualified health center (FQHC). This case study may provide a blueprint for other FQHCs seeking to respond to emerging immigrant and refugee populations. Such expansion gains relevance as the nation grows more diverse and continues to rely on FQHCs to respond to the health needs of medically underserved populations.

Exploring Different Methods to Obtain Patient Experience Feedback in a Community Health Center for Quality Improvement and Quality Assurance Purposes

By Nina Huynh Song, Shao-Chee Sim, Gemma Borja, and Perry Pong

Abstract:  This paper will provide the policy context for the important role of capturing patient experience at federally qualified health centers (FQHCs), especially with the implementation of the patient-centered medical home model. We discuss various quantitative and qualitative methods that were utilized to capture patient experience at the Charles B. Wang Community Health Center in New York City. Specifically, we describe our experience in adapting, pilot testing, and refining the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey to address the unique cultural and linguistic needs of our health center’s patient population. We also explore the benefits and limitations of these methods, and discuss factors that FQHCs should consider when capturing patient feedback.

Role of Community Institutional Review Boards in Community Health Center-Engaged Research with Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Other Pacific Islanders

By Morgan Ye, Jacqueline H. Tran, Rachelle Enos, and Rosy Chang Weir

Abstract:  With the growing trend of community-based research, academic-based Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) often lack appropriate community-based ethical considerations in their reviews. Thus, the Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations (AAPCHO) established an in-house community IRB to ensure that AAPCHO or member-initiated research is relevant to its community health centers (CHCs) and their Asian American, Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander (AA&NHOPI) patients. Evaluations conducted at the IRB’s one-year mark demonstrated members and applicants’ satisfaction with the IRB’s performance. Evaluation results and best practices show that AAPCHO’s IRB promotes community leadership and research capacity and ensures community-applicable research plans.

AAPI Nexus: Environmentalism 11:1&2 (2013)

“Special Issue on Tenth Anniversary and Asian American & Pacific Islander Environmentalism: Expansions, Connections, & Social Change” 11:1 & 2(2013)

The latest issue of AAPI Nexus Journal 11:1-2, “Asian American and Pacific Islander Environmentalism: Expansions, Connections, and Social Change,” marks the 10th Anniversary of the journal and commemorates the 20th Anniversary of Executive Order 12898 on Environmental Justice. The special double issue focuses on the timely topics of Environmental Justice, Education, and Immigration and aims to inform policy debates and arenas with research on understudied populations and topics related to Asian American and Pacific Islanders.

Part One features a reflection on ten years of the journal, papers addressing alternative methods for Asian American Studies, Indian Immigrant Women Support Networks, and U.S. Immigration and Filipino Labor Export Policies in Human Trafficking. Part Two examines the intersection of Asian American Studies and Environmental Studies, revealing information and insights that can be useful in environmental and social justice advocacy, strategic planning, policy development and programming. Professor Julie Sze (UC Davis) and Charles Lee (Deputy Associate Assistant Administrator for Environmental Justice, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) served as the consulting guest editors for this portion of the volume.

Read the Editors’ Note I: Reflection on Ten Years of AAPI Nexus: Vision, Realities, and Challenges by Paul M. Ong, Marjorie Kagawa-Singer, and Melany De La Cruz-Viesca (Adobe PDF Document)

Read the Editors’ Note II: Asian American and Pacific Islander Environmentalism: Expansions, Connections, and Social Change by Julie Sze, Paul M. Ong, and Charles Lee (Adobe PDF Document)

View the Abstracts

Browse the Table of Contents (Adobe PDF Document)

Abstract: AAPI Environmentalism

Abstracts for “Special Issue on Tenth Anniversary and Asian American & Pacific Islander Environmentalism: Expansions, Connections, & Social Change“11:1 & 2 (2013)

Part I: Reflection on Ten Years of AAPI Nexus: Vision, Realities, and Challenge

Centering Student Voices: A Mixed-Method Study of Strengths and Challenges for Asian American Studies
By: Matthew R. Lee and Jennifer Y. Chung

Abstract: This research study examines Asian American student perceptions of Asian American Studies courses from a large Midwestern university using survey data (n = 761) and in-depth interviews (n = 12). Student voices and perspectives are centered in order better understand strengths and challenges of Asian American Studies beyond identified institutional factors.

Support Networks, Ethnic Spaces, and Fictive Kin: Indian Immigrant Women Constructing Community in the United States
Namita N. Manohar 

Abstract: Framed within the segmented assimilation perspective, this paper examines community construction by middle-class, professional Tamilimmigrant women in Atlanta, Georgia. It argues that community building is a fundamentally gendered settlement activity predominantly performed by Tamil women. Using gendered labor, they construct a dynamic community across the settlement process, encompassing formal and informal, ethnic and non-ethnic components and sites, to take the form of wives’ support and women’s networks, cross-cultural friendships, ethnic spaces and fictive kinship. With the emergent bonding and bridging social capital, they chart their segmented incorporation as model minorities who are ethnic. In the process however, gender, race/ethnic and class hierarchies are often reinforced.

In this article, I discuss community1 construction by middle-class, professional Tamil2 immigrant women in Atlanta, Georgia. Framed by the segmented assimilation perspective on immigrant incorporation, this article asks three questions: (1) what are the forms of community constructed by Tamil women, (2) how is community building gendered, and (3) how does the constructed community facilitate their incorporation into America? By focusing on middle-class Tamil immigrants, this article advances the scholarship in several ways: (1) by theorizing community formation among South Asians it nuances our understanding of the ethnic landscape of Asians in the United States that has predominantly focused on East Asians; (2) by conferring visibility on a little-studied Indian regional group, it challenges the dominant imaginary of a homogenized Indian diaspora in the United States as being predominantly North Indian (Gujarati/Punjabi); and in so doing (3) is attentive to the interactions and reconstitutions of stratifications of class, caste, and gender in shaping the Tamil experience in the United States.3 I argue that community building among professional Tamils is predominantly performed by Tamil women. They construct a dynamic community that takes the form of wives’ support and women’s networks, cross-cultural friendships, ethnic spaces, and fictive kinship. Although the emergent bonding and bridging social capital facilitates their segmented incorporation as model minorities who are ethnic, the process also reinscribes gender, race/ethnic, class and caste hierarchies.

Guestploitation: Examining Filipino Human-Trafficking Guest Worker Cases through a Culturally Competent Practitioner’s Model
By: Cindy C. Liou, Jeannie Choi, and Ziwei Hu

Abstract: The trafficking of Filipino guest workers into modern-day slavery in the United States is an epidemic that demands an immediate response from both the American and Filipino governments. Often, law enforcement and service providers are not from the same linguistic and cultural background as trafficking survivors, especially given the variety of immigrant communities affected by human trafficking. With this article, we propose a service model for survivors of human trafficking that recognizes and addresses cultural differences. As a model on how to create such a framework, in this article, the authors use the example and describe this phenomenon of “guestploitation”—a system that victimizes Filipino guest workers through the Philippines’ labor export system and United States’ convoluted guest worker program—and how the problem is compounded by cultural barriers, communication difficulties, and the complexity of the American legal system. They draw upon their own casework and experiences to put forth several legal and policy recommendations aimed at assisting Filipino guest worker trafficking victims and preventing this widespread abuse. The authors use a culturally competent working model to inform effective ways to combat human trafficking with the goal of encouraging similar culturally competent methods of working with other trafficking victims from other immigrant communities.

Part II: Asian American and Pacific Islander Environmentalism: Expansions, Connections, and Social Change

Ethnic Variation in Environmental Attitudes and Opinion among Asian American Voters
By: Paul M. Ong, Loan Le, and Paula Daniels

Abstract: Asian Americans are increasingly recognized as an important constituency in electoral politics and yet there is a glaring gap in information about ethnic differences in public opinion. 1 Using a unique survey of Asian American voters conducted by the California League of Conservation Voters, we add to the nascent literature on environmental attitudes and public opinion among Asian Americans. We find systematic ethnic differences in the distribution of responses related to self-reported “environmentalist” identity, support for environmental policies, and environmental concerns such as climate change. Asian Americans are strongly proenvironment overall; nevertheless, the findings suggest that any mobilization related to environmental politics should be sensitive to ethnic differences, as well as commonalities that transcend subgroups.

Engaging Vietnamese American Communities in California in Environmental Health and Awareness
By: Tina Duyen Tran, Jacqueline H. Tran, My Tong, Lisa Fu, Peggy Reynolds, Vinh Luu, and Thu Quach

Abstract: Vietnamese immigrants tend to cluster in targeted geographic areas and occupations with resulting disproportionate exposure opportunities to hazardous environmental chemicals and neighborhood stressors; yet there is little research on environmental health in this population. Vietnamese communities in Alameda, Marin, Santa Clara, and Orange counties in California conducted community mapping audits (i.e., collecting air-contaminant data, observational survey information, and photovoice documentation) in neighborhoods where they live, work, and play. This paper describes the community-based participatory research process that helped to raise awareness about the environment for participating communities, and looks at how community engagement can lead to action for change.

Building a 21st Century Environmental Movement That Wins:  Twenty Years of Environmental Justice Organizing by the Asian Pacific Environmental Network
By: Roger Kim and Martha Matsuoka

Abstract: Over the past twenty years, the Asian Pacific Environmental Network (APEN) has engaged in innovative strategies for building grassroots leadership in Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities to bring important perspectives to the movement for environmental justice. Founded in 1993, APEN strategies include community organizing and leadership development, policy development and advocacy, multiracial movement building, and, most recently, electoral organizing and civic engagement to affect state climate and energy policy.

This article reflects on lessons learned in organizing to elevate the power of AAPIs to influence the public debates over the environment and influence public policy that affects where AAPIs live, work, play, and go to school. We focus on a case study of the successful defeat of Proposition 23, a California ballot initiative that would have suspended the nation’s toughest state-level greenhouse gas emissions program and point to the increasing role and power of AAPIs in determining state and national climate policy. For organizers, policy makers, and environmental advocates in particular, the campaign illustrates the importance of integrating an electoral strategy with community organizing work to educate and turn out voters to advance progressive environmental policy change.

Lessons from APEN’s twenty years illustrate the past and current role of AAPIs in environmental activism and policy and the strategies necessary to tap demographic changes in order to strengthen a comprehensive strategy to combat climate change, accelerate the development of an equitable clean energy economy, and ensure a livable planet for future generations.

Native Hawaiians Getting Back to Mālama `Āina
By: Leslie Kahihikolo

Abstract: Historically, traditional Native Hawaiian values and survival were rooted in the practice of mālama `āina – caring for the land.  Urbanization and development of the land over time, however, have disconnected Native Hawaiians from their traditional practices and land.  In an effort to get back to mālama `āina, Native Hawaiians are incorporating cultural history and identity into addressing environmental problems by taking responsibility to reclaim and restore the `āina for future generations.  Once such example is the Ka Wai Ola O Wai`anae project in which the Wai`anae Coast community is using federal funding to build capacity to understand and take effective actions that mitigate pollutants in the environment, with the goal of getting back mālama `āina.




Abstract: Special Issue on Asian Americans in Global Cities

Abstracts for Special Issue on Asian Americans in Global Cities: Los Angeles – New York Connections and Comparisons, Volume 10, Number 2 Fall 2012

Message from the Editors

Asian Americans in Global Cities: Los Angeles – New York Connections and Comparisons
By: Paul M. Ong and Tarry Hum

Abstract:  This special AAPI Nexus issue examines Asian American experiences in global cities through comparative studies of Los Angeles and New York. The demographic facts are astonishing—more than a quarter of the sixteen million Asian Americans reside in either of the two greater metropolises where they comprise more than a tenth of the total population in each region. Consequently, it is difficult to fully understand and appreciate Asian American experiences without studying these two global cities. The comparative approach offers great analytical potential because it can generate insights into what phenomena transcend regions and patterns that are produced by factors and forces common to Asian Americans regardless of location and fundamental global-city processes. The comparative approach can also identify phenomena that are unique to each region, such as the outcomes of specific local and regional structures and dynamics.

A Tale of Two Global Cities: The State of Asian Americans in Los Angeles and New York
By: Howard Shih and Melany De La Cruz-Viesca

Abstract:  At the national level, the Asian American population has grown more than any other major race group. According to the 2010 Census, the Los Angeles metro area had 2,199,186 Asians, making it the home to the largest Asian population in the United States. Following close behind was the New York City metro area with 2,008,906 Asians. Over a quarter of the 14.7 million Asian Americans reside in either of the two greater metropolitan regions, where they comprise around a tenth of the total population in each metropolis. We begin with a brief historical overview of immigration legislation that has both invited and excluded Asian Americans, as a means of understanding how Asian Americans have been perceived over time. We will also compare some key characteristics of Asian American populations in Los Angeles County, New York City, the Balance of LA Combined Statistical Area (CSA) (excluding Los Angeles County), and the Balance of NYC CSA (excluding New York City), and the Balance of the United States. The paper will cover: (1) demographic trends and patterns (2) economic status (3) political engagement and incorporation, and (4) residential settlement patterns. We close with a discussion of how these demographic changes have contributed to Asian Americans rapid social, economic, and political upward mobility in the last decade, at a time when the global restructuring of the economy has blurred nation-state boundaries that once existed and migration from Asia to the United States has become more complex, particularly over the past two decades.

Cultivating a Cultural Home Space: The Case of Little Tokyo’s Budokan of Los Angeles Project
By: Susan Nakaoka

Abstract:  Little Tokyo is a unique case exemplifying the evolving nature of community economic development in Los Angeles. In-depth interviews with key community leaders identify the need for the importance of a place-specific, contextually relevant development approach in order to maintain an ethnic presence in the neighborhood. Faced with new threats of gentrification, the complications of a global economy, and a new phase of transit-oriented development, community members are banking on a multi-sports complex in Little Tokyo to rejuvenate a sense of cultural home space for the now geographically dispersed Japanese Americans.

This Is Part of Our History: Preserving Garment Manufacturing and a Sense of Home in Manhattan’s Chinatown
By: Lena Sze

Abstract:  This article explores attempts by labor and community advocates to retain a garment industry base in Manhattan’s Chinatown after 9/11. Specifically tying the viability of such proposals to ongoing processes such as gentrification, transnational capital investment, local development, and broader anti-manufacturing urban policy, I argue that strategies for appropriate and sensitive community development that are rooted in sectoral preservation or development need to take into account the specificities of place, class, and ethnicity. In particular, the concept of a valued cultural or home space adds urgency to the advocacy of such proposals beyond the generic economic rationale of manufacturing retention.

New Dimensions of Self-Employment among Asian Americans in Los Angeles and New York
By: C. N. Le

Abstract:  This article uses census data from the 2006–08 American Community Survey to illustrate the range of Asian American entrepreneurial activities in the Los Angeles and the New York City areas and finds that Los Angeles self-employment is characterized by emerging high-skill “professional service” industries while New York continues to be dominated by low-skill traditional “enclave-associated” niches. Within these patterns, there are also notable interethnic and generational differences. I discuss their socioeconomic implications and policy recommendations to facilitate a gradual shift of Asian American entrepreneurship toward more professional service activities that reflect the demographic evolution of the Asian American community and the ongoing dynamics of globalization.

We Make the Spring Rolls, They Make Their Own Rules: Filipina Domestic Workers’ Fight for Labor Rights in New York City and Los Angeles
By: Ariella Rotramel

Abstract:  This article provides a multidimensional examination of Filipina domestic workers’ efforts to promote workers’ rights nationally and globally. Through their own experiences as transnational workers, Filipina activists were able to translate their knowledge of labor dynamics into practical and effective tactics such as the demand for labor contracts as an industry standard. Combining ethnographic research and interviews conducted with New York–based Filipina domestic worker activists with primary and secondary sources from Los Angeles, recent advocacy work in New York is compared with efforts in Los Angeles and California more broadly. Key points of comparison—demographics and organizing histories, geography and usage of public space, and political contexts and legislation—illuminate significant divergences and continuities between the two regions.

Community-based? Asian American Students, Parents, and Teachers in the Shifting Chinatowns of New York and Los Angeles
By: Benji Chang and Juhyung Harold Lee

Abstract:  This article examines the experiences of children, parents, and teachers in the New York and Los Angeles Chinatown public schools, as observed by two classroom educators, one based in each city. The authors document trends among the transnational East and Southeast Asian families that comprise the majority in the local Chinatown schools and discuss some of the key intersections of communities and identities within those schools, as well as the pedagogies that try to build upon these intersections in the name of student empowerment and a more holistic vision of student achievement. Ultimately, this article seeks to bring forth the unique perspectives of Chinatown community members and explore how students, families, teachers, school staff and administrators, and community organizers can collaborate to actualize a more transformative public education experience.

“Asian Latinos” and the U.S. Census
By: Robert Chao Romero and Kevin Escudero

Abstract:  Numbering more than 300,000, “Asian Latinos” are a large but overlooked segment of the Asian American and Latino populations of the United States. Drawing from data generated from the 5 percent Public Use Microdata Samples of the 2000 U.S. Census, this article provides a preliminary quantitative analysis of the Asian Latino community. In particular, it examines the demographic characteristics of population size, geographic distribution, national origin, gender, age, citizenship, and educational attainment. In addition, it examines several policy implications related to Asian Latino coalition building and undocumented immigrant advocacy.

Abstract: Special Issue on Immigration

Abstracts for Special Issue on Immigration, Volume 10, Number 1 Spring 2012

Message from the Editors

Immigration and Belonging: Nation, Class, and Membership in New Migration Policies
By: Edward J.W. Park and John S.W. Park

Abstract:  We are pleased to present this collection of essays. They tie together some of the most important overlaps between immigration studies and Asian American Studies, and they present collectively a compelling portrait of how Asian American communities have continued to change as a result of on-going migration trends. These essays remind us that new Asian migrants have enlarged and complicated the very definition of the term, “Asian American,” and they tell important stories about how class, immigration status, and settlement patterns have altered the communities and regions that have been so central to Asian American Studies scholars. In addition, the essays in this volume indicate the growing importance of Asian American topics and approaches within several academic disciplines and fields, including labor economics, qualitative sociology, studies of migration and acculturation, and discourses of globalization. These authors have a great deal to say about how skilled people in general can move across the world, how some can move back and forth across international boundaries with relative ease, even as poorer migrants try to survive economically in our major cities and search through difficult options in their attempts to settle in the United States. We begin this volume first by thanking all of the contributors for showing us their amazing work, and we thank the staff of the AAPI Nexus for giving us this rare opportunity to collaborate scholars and activists.

Research Article

Between China and the United States: Contemporary Policies and Flows of Highly Skilled Migrants
By: Wei Li and Wan Yu

Abstract:  We are witnessing a change in volume, direction, and diversity of migrant flow patterns between China and the United States. These changes are a result of China’s unprecedented level of economic growth. In this paper, we examine the migration flow of highly-skilled migrants, who are increasingly targeted by both United States and China migration policies. Finally, we will conclude with policy implications.

Resource Paper

Ethnic Return Migration Policies and Asian American Labor in Japan and Korea
By: Jane Yamashiro

Abstract:  Asian ethnic return migration policies are having an important impact on the lives of Asian Americans. By making it easier for later generation Asian Americans to work and invest in their ancestral homelands, these policies have affected the scale of Asian American migration and their economic, cultural, and social connections to Asia. However, ethnic return migration policies and their effects are not uniform across all Asian American groups. This paper analyzes how Asian Americans are being affected by ethnic return migration policies through comparative examination of the Immigration Control Act in Japan and the Overseas Korean Act in South Korea. The two policies in Japan and South Korea (hereafter Korea) are similar in their initial targeting of ethnic return migrants and in their privileging of skilled workers and investors in the 2000s to increase each country’s competitiveness in the global economy. However, while Korea’s policy has cast a net to include Korean Americans specifically, Japan’s ethnic return migration policy has not been aimed at Japanese Americans in the same way.

Resource Paper

Community-Based Asian American and Pacific Islander Organizations and Immigrant Integration
By: Erwin de Leon

Abstract:  An Urban Institute study examined immigrant integration through the lens of community-based organizations. Based on interviews with nonprofit leaders and an analysis of financial data, the study found that immigrant-serving nonprofits provide a wide range of programs and services that promote the social and political mobility of newcomers. Findings also suggest that Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) organizations in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area are smaller than other immigrant-serving nonprofits. AAPI groups also lack access to political networks that are crucial to securing policy and funding support. Moreover, different political and administrative structures affect the ability of these nonprofit organizations to serve their constituents.

Practitioners’ Essay

The Importance of Ethnic Competency: Labor Trafficking, Thai Migrations, and the Thai Community Development Center
By: Sudarat Musikawong and Chanchanit Martorell

Abstract:  The Trafficking Victims Protection Act (2000, 2011) created new conditional residency visas and new avenues for American citizenship for the victims of human trafficking. Thai migrants have benefited from its provisions, but their disproportionate presence in this category has indicated the depths of this problem within the Thai immigrant community. This paper examines anti-trafficking advocacy, and it begins by criticizing existing Asian American pan-ethnic organizations. It addresses the limits of their approaches, and argues that ethnic-specific organizations still play an important role in helping victims as well as the ethnic communities in which they will settle.

Research Article

Labor Market Migrations: Immigrant Intersections in the Informal Economy
By: Anna Joo Kim

Abstract:  This study argues that many workers in Asian enclave economies move between both formal and informal employment. Scholars and other commentators have often framed “immigrant work,” as static, exploitative, and characterized by illegal arrangements, while formal employment has provided mobility, better pay, and important fringe benefits, including health care and paid vacations. The relationship between formal and informal labor markets, however, may be more intertwined in an ethnic enclave economy. Drawn from the experiences of Korean and Latino immigrant workers from Los Angeles’ Koreatown, the qualitative data presented here show that many workers move back and forth in a “blended” or “mixed” labor market, in a pattern that complicates conventional understandings of the working lives of immigrant laborers.

Research Article

Citizenship at a Cost: Undocumented Asian Youth Perceptions and the Militarization of Immigration
By: Tracy Lachica Buenavista

Abstract:  Two federal policies, the Military Accessions Vital to National Interest (MAVNI) program and the proposed federal Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act, represent the militarization of immigration. Critical Race Theory is used to analyze MAVNI, the DREAM Act, and semi-structured interviews with fourteen undocumented Asian immigrant youth who believe these policies provide viable pathways to citizenship through military enlistment. The project explores the recurring pattern of militarized immigration reform in the United States and challenges scholars, policy makers, and activists to understand the relationship between immigration and legacies of American imperialism.

Abstracts: Archive

“Special Issue on AAPIs 2040” 14:2 (Fall 2016)

“Special Issue on AAPIs 2040” 14:1 (Spring 2016)

“Special Issue on Wealth Inequality and Asian American Pacific Islanders” 13:1 & 2 (2015)

“Special Issue on Asian American, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander Communities and Federally Qualified Health Centers” 12:1-2 (2014)

“Special Issue on Asian American & Pacific Islander Environmentalism: Expansions, Connections, & Social Change” 11:1 & 2 (2013)

“Special Issue on Asian Americans in Global Cities: Los Angeles – New York Connections and Comparisons” 10:2 (2012)

“Special Issue on Immigration” 10:1 (2012)

“Forging the Future” 9:1&2 (2011)

“Mental Health” 8:2 (2010)

“Intersections of Education” 8:1 (2010)

“Higher Education” 7:2 (2009)

“K-12 Education” 7:1 (2009)

“Aging,” 6:2 (2008)

“Model Minority Myth,” 6:1 (2008)

“Welfare Reform,” 5:2 (2007)

“Art & Cultural Institutions,” 5:1 (2007)

“Youth,” 4:2 (2006)

“Glass Ceiling/Health Issues,” 4:1 (2006)

“Employment/Work Issues,” 3:2 (2005)

“Health,” 3:1 (2005)

“Voting,” 2:2 (2004)

“Civil Rights,” 2:1 (2004)

“Community Development,” 1:1 (2003)


Abstract: Forging the Future

AAPI Nexus: Forging the Future Volume 9, Number 1&2 Fall 2011 Abstracts


Overview: Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Data and Policy Needs in Civil Rights
By: Taeku Lee and Janelle Wong

Crossing Intersections: Challenges Facing Asian American, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Youth: Exploring Issues and Recommendations
By: Ben de Guzman and Alice Y. Hom

The experiences and the everyday life stories of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth who are also Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AANHPI) are not well-known or documented in the literature about LGBT or AANHPI communities. To help address this lack of information and knowledge, this article highlights some of the issues that these youth face and offers recommendations regarding data collection, cultural competency, and utilization of an intersectional lens of race/ethnicity and sexual orientation to ensure changes will be considered to policies that affect these populations. The policy recommendations focus on issues such as bullying and sexual and reproductive health.

Bringing Asian American Voices to Policy Debates: Findings from the 2008 National Asian American Survey
By: S. Karthick Ramakrishnan, Jane Junn, Taeku Lee, and Janelle Wong

Where do Asian Americans stand when it comes to public policy? In what ways are they most likely to participate in politics in order to exert their influence in public policy making? More often than not, the answer to these questions is mired in assumptions, anecdotes, and selective evidence because until only very recently, little systematic, nationally representative data on this emerging group has been available to the public. In this brief, we introduce the 2008 National Asian American Survey (NAAS), the first multilingual, multiethnic national survey of Asian American political attitudes and behavior, and suggest that these data shed light on: (1) critical questions about Asian Americans’ public policy attitudes and (2) the types of political action Asian Americans are most likely to take to pursue their policy interests.

Rights at Risk: South Asians in the Post-9/11 United States
By: Sangay Mishra.

South Asian Americans, one of the fastest-growing and most diverse immigrant communities, have experienced increased discrimination and hate crime during the post-9/11 period. South Asians bore the brunt of racial hostility triggered in the immediate aftermath of the attacks, with Muslims and Sikhs bearing the greatest burden. The domestic security policies inaugurated after 2001 further impacted both South Asian and Arab communities adversely. These official policies ranging from surveillance of mosques and communities to delayed naturalization and restricted immigration have severely encroached upon the civil liberties of the groups. The ten-year anniversary of the 9/11 attacks should be an occasion to review some of these policies in order to ensure that South Asian and Arab communities are not being profiled and targeted in the name of domestic security.

An Agenda for Policy Change: Participatory Research and Data Collection by Southeast Asian Youth
By: Kohei Ishihara

In a policy-making world that is influenced by “model minority” ideology and racial aggregate data, Southeast Asian Americans have become one of the most underrepresented and misunderstood Asian American communities. Cambodian, Laotian, and Hmong youth leaders in Providence, Rhode Island, protested this lack of representation by surveying 16 percent of the city’s Southeast Asian youth population. This data became the first of its kind to provide a quantitative and qualitative portrait of the lives and issues experienced by the city’s Southeast Asian residents. Youth leaders were trained in survey administration and data analysis in order to design and execute the survey. Survey results revealed the very intricate and oppressive realities faced by Southeast Asian youth, including lack of education, gang violence, racial profiling, inter-generational conflict, as well cultural conflict over ideas of gender and sexuality. Youth leaders used the data and a process of consensus decision making to develop a list of policy-change recommendations targeting Rhode Island decision makers and power brokers.

Bamboo Ceilings in the Federal Service
By: Carson K. Eoyang

This article is an update to the 2006 AAPI Nexus Journal article about Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) senior executives in the federal government. Despite notable progress in recent years, AAPIs remain underrepresented in the Senior Executive Service (SES). Although recent administration initiatives have been beneficial for increasing diversity in the civil service, budget pressures and workforce constraints still hinder further advancements in executive diversity.

Policy Recommendations to Reduce Toxic Exposures for Nail Salon Workers
By: Julia Liou, Catherine A. Porter, and Thu Quach

The nail salon sector is growing rapidly. Nail salon workers are predominantly Vietnamese immigrant women who are exposed to numerous harmful chemicals in nail care products. The situation is exacerbated by limited safety information, language barriers to information, and lack of government oversight. This brief discusses the health and safety issues faced by workers at the nexus of environmental and worker justice and the policy recommendations by which to address these issues from a public health and regulatory perspective. Although these policy recommendations pertain to California where the sector is largest, they also have far-reaching implications at the national level.


Overview: Challenges in Analyzing and Tracking Asian American Pacific Islander Economic Conditions
By: Paul Ong

Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Employment Issues in the United States
By: Marlene Kim

Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) in the United States face problems of discrimination, the glass ceiling, and very high long-term unemployment rates. As a diverse population, although some Asian Americans are more successful than average, others, like those from Southeast Asia and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs), work in low-paying jobs and suffer from high poverty rates, high unemployment rates, and low earnings. Collecting more detailed and additional data from employers, oversampling AAPIs in current data sets, making administrative data available to researchers, providing more resources for research on AAPIs, and enforcing nondiscrimination laws and affirmative action mandates would assist this population.

The State of Asian American Businesses
By: Diem Linda Tran and OiYan A. Poon

Business success is a dominant theme in the Asian American narrative. However, Asian American entrepreneurship is more complex and multilayered than commonly believed and requires careful scrutiny. This brief examines the state of Asian American business ownership between 2005 and 2007. Findings suggest that although Asian Americans form businesses at higher rates than other racial/ethnic minorities, Asian American business ownership and outcomes continue to trail those of non-Hispanic whites. Potential factors contributing to racial/ethnic gaps and policy recommendations are discussed.

The Changing Landscape of Asian Entrepreneurship, Minority Banks, and Community Development
By: Tarry Hum.

This policy brief examines minority banks and their lending practices in New York City. By synthesizing various public data sources, this policy brief finds that Asian banks now make up a majority of minority banks, and their loans are concentrated in commercial real estate development. This brief underscores the need for improved data collection and access to research minority banks and the need to improve their contributions to equitable community development and sustainability.

Disaggregation Matters: Asian Americans and Wealth Data
By: Melany De La Cruz-Viesca

This policy brief explores the usefulness and limitations of existing federal government data sets in better understanding the wealth position and asset-building needs of Asian Americans. As Asian Americans continue to be one of the fastest-growing racial groups in the United States, it is critical for federal data sets to disaggregate Asian Americans by ethnicity and by immigrant versus nonimmigrant status, in order to provide a more accurate and nuanced analysis of the Asian American experience with asset accumulation. The lumping of all Asian American ethnic groups under the aggregate “Asian” category masks a high degree of variation in social and economic status across these subgroups.

Working but Poor in New York City
By: Howard Shih

This policy brief summarizes the methodology and key findings of the Asian American Federation’s report, Working but Poor: Asian Americans in New York City. The report marked the first time Asian American poverty in New York City was examined in detail using the new American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample. The report also uses two definitions to examine struggling Asian Americans, the official poverty thresholds traditionally used and a concept of low-income families defined as families living below twice the federal poverty thresholds. After a summary on the methodology of the report, the brief will cover the findings and recommendations through three issue areas: improving job opportunities for working-age Asian Americans, building skills to help Asian American children broaden their future opportunities, and helping seniors in need of access to the social safety net. The brief concludes with an overview of Asian American poverty from a national perspective and discussion of future areas of study.


Overview: Educational Data, Research Methods, Policies, and Practices that Matter for AAPIs
By: Shirley Hune

Asian American College Students over the Decades: Insights from Studying Asian American First-Year Students from 1971 to 2005 Using Survey Research Data
By: Julie J. Park

The purpose of this brief is to discuss insights from using survey data from the UCLA Higher Education Research Institute’s Cooperative Institutional Research Program’s (CIRP) Freshman Survey to study Asian American first-year students. The CIRP is the country’s oldest, ongoing study of college students, and 361,271 Asian American students have completed the survey since its inception. In addition to describing unique findings that came from disaggregating data by gender and income level, I discuss the need for survey response options to be tailored to the needs of Asian American students.

The Importance of Critically Disaggregating Data: The Case of Southeast Asian American College Students
By: Dina C. Maramba

The following policy brief calls for the improvement in data collection of Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) and, more specifically, Southeast Asian Americans (SEAAs) in order to facilitate college access and success. First, context and the concern for the lack of data are provided. Second, an explanation of the challenges with the existing data and importance of disaggregating data with regard to ethnicity and other important factors such as language and generational status are discussed. Also emphasized is the importance of incorporating the use of qualitative data in the policy decision-making process. Third, suggestions and recommendations that will benefit research and eventually positively influence policy decisions regarding SEAAs in education are discussed.

Broadening Support for Asian American and Pacific Islander Immigrant Families: The Role and Impact of Community- based Organizations in Family-Community-School Partnerships
By: Nga-Wing Anjela Wong

Children of immigrants are the fastest-growing population in the United States; therefore addressing their needs has become an important issue that faces educators, researchers, and policy makers nationwide. This policy brief examines the services and support for Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) families during nonschool hours. Specifically, I illustrate the role and impact of a community-based organization (CBO) in family-community-school partnerships and how CBOs provide information, support, and advocacy for low-income Chinese immigrant families.

Charter School “Miracle”? Youth Participatory Action Research and Education Reform in Post-Katrina New Orleans
By: Jacob Cohen and OiYan A. Poon

This policy brief examines and identifies education disparities within the context of a much-touted New Orleans “charter school miracle.” After describing the Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) method employed at a local Vietnamese American youth organization in New Orleans, we summarize findings on inequalities in academic rigor and access to quality teaching, which suggest that charter school reforms are not bringing about an education “miracle” in post-Katrina New Orleans and that students of color, in particular, are inadequately served. The brief also discusses the potential implications of YPAR methods for asserting Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) perspectives and voices in ongoing education reform debates.

Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions: Areas of Growth, Innovation, and Collaboration
By: Robert T. Teranishi.

This policy brief aims to raise the national visibility of the Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions (AANAPISI) program and link the needs of these institutions to the hundreds of similar Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs) (e.g., historically black colleges and universities, Hispanic-serving institutions, and tribal colleges and universities). More specifically, this brief demonstrates how and why the MSI policy strategy is an effective way to increase the success of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) college students, and how the AANAPISI program can be further strengthened.


Overview: What a Difference a Data Set and Advocacy Make for AAPI Health
By: Ninez A. Ponce

Limited English Proficiency as a Critical Component of the Department of Health and Human Services Proposed Rule for Medically Underserved Areas
By: Rosy Chang Weir, Stacy Lavilla, Winston Tseng, Luella J. Penserga, Hui Song, Sherry M. Hirota, Jeffrey B. Caballero, and Won Kim Cook

Medically underserved Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Other Pacific Islanders (AA&NHOPIs) and other racial/ethnic minorities are often left out of the health center system (OMB, 1997; Papa Ola Lokahi, 2007). The Department of Human and Health Services is updating its Proposed Rule, which determines key population health indicators for medically underserved areas (MUA) and health professional shortage designations. This is important as revisions could increase Community Health Center (CHC) health care access for underserved AA&NHOPIs. We recommend that Limited English Proficiency be used as one of the measures in determining MUAs, as it is a scientifically valid and available measure that can identify where underserved AA&NHOPIs and other minorities who face an added language barrier can access needed health services.

Collection of Local Asian American Health Data Closes Health Disparity Gaps
By: Beverly J. Gor and Lovell A. Jones

Lack of disaggregated health data for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) continues to be a barrier to identifying and addressing health disparities in the AAPI population. Because the AAPI population is relatively small, health surveillance groups frequently overlook or disregard them in their data collection, often citing that AAPIs are “difficult to reach,” or that it is too costly to include them in data sets. This brief addresses these barriers and demonstrates that when there is sufficient support from policymakers, committed academic partnerships, and genuine engagement of the community, scientifically sound health data can be collected in a cost efficient manner. Such data not only identifies health needs, but also may generate significant benefits to communities, health planners and researchers and can lead to funding to address those needs.

Childhood Obesity in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities: Critical Data Needs and Research Priorities
By: Shao-Chee Sim

Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs) have some of the fastest-growing rates of obesity of all ethnic groups (Harrison et al., 2005). Preventing childhood obesity among AANHPIs is a challenge constrained by resource and research gaps. These include the lack of national prevalence data, insufficient funding support, limited knowledge of risk factors associated with childhood obesity, particularly in these populations, and the lack of programmatic evaluations. The finding of this literature review shows that only 0.11 percent of PubMed articles on childhood obesity focused on AANHPIs. Recommendations to advance what is known about AANHPI and childhood obesity include targeting community prevalence studies, community needs assessments, risk factor studies, and program evaluations; training and mentoring junior researchers; and creating a national clearing-house to compile research literature and evidence-based practices.

Strategic Data and Research Opportunities on Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Health through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
By: Winston Tseng, Priscilla Huang, and Won Kim Coo

This paper summarizes the federal requirements under Section 4302(a) of the Affordable Care Act (ACA); the opportunities for improving data collection to address health disparities affecting Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders; the provision’s limitations; and how to address these limitations. Our recommendations for ACA Section 4302(a) implementation include: (1) adhering to the 2009 Institute of Medicine’s data standards on race, ethnicity, and primary language; (2) requiring federally-supported national surveys, health care providers, and publicly-administered health programs at the point of care and enrollment to comply with Section 4302 requirements; (3) ensuring compliance with Title VI and ACA Section 1557 non-discrimination requirements by providing translated health surveys and increasing language assistance capacity; and (4) engaging communities in the design of race, ethnicity, and language data to ensure community relevance.


 Overview: Lots of Aloha, Little Data: Data and Research on Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders
By: Shawn Malia Kana‘iaupuni

Efficacy of Federal Data: Revised Office of Management and Budget Standard for Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders Examined
By: Sela V. Panapasa, Kamana‘opono M. Crabbe, and Joseph Keawe‘aimoku Kaholokula

This policy brief examines the status of federal data since the implementation of the 1997 Revised OMB 15 standards for the collection of race and ethnic data, identifies ongoing data limitations, and present recommendations to improve policy and interventions for Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPI). While most federal agencies are taking appropriate steps to comply with the revised OMB standards, many are having less success reporting disaggregated information on NHPIs. This suggests that increased efforts to obtain robust samples of NHPIs warrants immediate attention in order for federal agencies to fully comply with the revised OMB standards.

New Research on the Impact of Cultural Influences in Education on Native Hawaiian Student Outcomes
By: Shawn Malia Kana‘iaupuni, Brandon Ledward, and Ku‘ulani Keohokalole

The long-standing education achievement gaps of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) students in our nation represent a significant concern, one that diverse stakeholders are committed to resolving. Although national data sets fail to address NHPI populations, thereby limiting the ability to drive effective policy and programs, local-level research and developments in education provide fresh opportunities to reexamine the learning and teaching of NHPI students. This report shares the results of a quantitative research study that examines the impact of culture-based education (CBE) on student achievement and socio-emotional development. The findings indicate that culture-based educational strategies positively impact student outcomes, especially Native Hawaiian student outcomes. The implications of this study are valuable for education practitioners, programs, and policy makers seeking to eliminate achievement gaps for NHPI and indigenous students.

Policy Recommendations to Prevent Youth Violence and Substance Abuse and Foster Positive Youth Development among Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Adolescents
By Karen Umemoto and Earl S. Hishinuma

Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders represent diverse groups with unique histories and rich cultural traditions. They also confront significant challenges in health and education, experiencing disproportionally higher rates of violence and substance abuse. Policy recommendations regarding youth delinquency, substance abuse, and positive development include: (1) application of a socio-ecological approach; (2) utilization of a positive youth development and restorative approach; (3) development of culturally based interventions; (4) the building of capacity for youth-serving organizations; (5) development and strengthening of collaborations; (6) juvenile justice reforms; and (7) encouragement of research that disaggregates ethnic groups and gives greater consideration to community perspectives.

Indigenous Knowledges Driving Technological Innovation
By: The Hi‘iaka Working Group

This policy brief explores the use and expands the conversation on the ability of geospatial technologies to represent Indigenous cultural knowledge. Indigenous peoples’ use of geospatial technologies has already proven to be a critical step for protecting tribal self-determination. However, the ontological frameworks and techniques of Western geospatial technologies differ from those of Indigenous cultures, which inevitably lead to mistranslation and misrepresentation when applied to cultural knowledge. The authors advocate the creation of new technologies that are more conducive to Indigenous ontologies and epistemologies in an effort to break down the barriers to the expression and preservation of cultural heritage and cultural survival.

Liberating Data: Accessing Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Data from National Data Sets
By: Maile Taualii, Joey Quenga, Raynald Samoa, Salim Samanani, and Doug Dover

Using data from the National Center for Health Statistics, an assessment was performed on the quality of death reporting in accordance with standards, a working definition was developed, death counts and rates for several racial categories were analyzed, and data was modeled for use in data structures optimized for analysis and reporting with simple client tools. Most states were still not compliant with the 1997 Office of Management and Budget racial categories by 2005. Comparing the mortality experience of NHOPI to whites revealed many differences. Mortality was higher in NHOPI males and occurred at younger ages for both males and females. The place of death differed between NHOPI and whites, while place of injury (where applicable) was similar. Causes also varied after the top two causes of death.

Abstract: Mental Health

AAPI Nexus: Mental Health Volume 8, Number 2 Spring 2011 Abstracts

Aligning Policy to the Mental Health  Needs of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
Marguerite Ro and Wendy Ho

ABSTRACT: This paper examines federal and California state mental health policy as related to Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. A brief review of several pertinent issues is presented: the mental health status of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, culture and stigma, insurance coverage and utilization, and the mental health workforce. Recommendations are suggested to address issues of data and research, culturally competent services, and accountability of existing policies.

Comparative Effectiveness Research on Asian American Mental Health: Review and Recommendations
Frederick T.L. Leong and Zornitsa Kalibatseva

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the comparative effectiveness research (CER) paradigm and its important role in guiding current federal funding of research and examine how this paradigm can be used to guide Asian American mental health research. We will begin with a review of comparative effectiveness research and provide several examples of Asian American studies, which fit into the paradigm. In discussing how we may map the CER onto Asian American mental health research, the problem of differential research infrastructure will be introduced and used to frame our recommendations for future research. We provide some recommendations for using CER in Asian American mental health research by noting the need for multiple approaches due to the problem of differential research infrastructure, and expanding the human capital and data infrastructure. The pros and cons of randomized control trials (RCT) are discussed and an example of a study being planned by the authors is presented to illustrate how to undertake studies on Asian American mental health using the CER paradigm.

Pre-Intake Attrition or Non- Attendance of Intake Appointments at an Ethnic-Specific Mental Health Program for Asian American Children and Adolescents
Phillip D. Akutsu, Garyn K. Tsuru, and Joyce P. Chu

ABSTRACT: This study examines the relationship of client demographic, clinical, client-therapist match, and service program factors to the rate of pre-intake attrition or the non-attendance of intake appointments for 236 Asian American children and adolescents (18 years and younger) at an Asian-oriented ethnic-specific mental health program. The results showed that urgency status or the need for the earliest intake appointment, ethnic match with the prescreening interviewer, and the assignment of the prescreening interviewer as the intake therapist were significantly related to attendance of intake appointments for Asian American children and adolescents. In contrast, older age was found to reduce the likelihood of intake attendance for Asian American youth clients. Specific implications of these results to program evaluation and service improvements in mental health care delivery to Asian American youth groups will be discussed.

Cultural Identity and Conceptualization of Depression among Native Hawaiian Women
Van M. Ta, Puihan J. Chao, and Joseph Keawe’aimoku Kaholokula

ABSTRACT: This study seeks to understand how Native Hawaiian (NH) women identified themselves culturally and conceptualized the causes of depression, and whether there was an association between these two constructs. Among the thirty NH women who were interviewed, a quarter had a high degree of depression symptoms, and a majority expressed a strong/shared identification/affinity with their culture. Our findings suggest that social stressors that contribute to the depressive symptoms of NH women could be, in part, linked to acculturation-related factors associated with U.S. occupation of Hawai‘i and their social status as native people. Future research should examine this relationship further.

Asian Americans and Redistricting: Empowering Through Electoral Boundaries
Paul Ong and Albert J. Lee

ABSTRACT: This article examines the background, history, and outcomes of Asian American engagement in political redistricting. It provides a historical context through an overview of the efforts by African Americans and Latinos, which established a foundation for Asian Americans. Through an analysis of demographic and spatial patterns, the paper argues that Asian Americans face a unique challenge and consequently have had to rely on utilizing a strategy based on the concept of “Community of Common Interest” to defend the integrity of Asian American neighborhoods from being fragmented by redistricting. Although it is difficult to construct Asian-majority districts, the creation of Asian-influence districts has contributed to an increase in the numbers of elected Asian American officials.