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Table of Contents: Archive

“Community Development,” 1:1 (2003)
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“Civil Rights,” 2:1 (2004)
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“Voting,” 2:2 (2004)
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“Health,” 3:1 (2005)
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“Employment/Work Issues,” 3:2 (2005)
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“Glass Ceiling/Health Issues,” 4:1 (2006)
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“Youth,” 4:2 (2006)
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“Art & Cultural Institutions,” 5:1 (2007)
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“Welfare Reform,” 5:2 (2007)
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“Model Minority Myth,” 6:1 (2008)
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“Aging,” 6:2 (2008)
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“K-12 Education” 7:1 (2009)
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“Higher Education” 7:2 (2009)
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“Intersections of Education” 8:1 (2010)
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“Mental Health” 8:2 (2010)
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“Forging the Future” 9:1 & 2 (2011)
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“Special Issue on Immigration” 10:1 (2012)
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“Special Issue on Asian Americans in Global Cities: Los Angeles – New York Connections and Comparisons” 10:2 (2012)
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“Special Issue on Asian American & Pacific Islander Environmentalism: Expansions, Connections, & Social Change” 11:1 & 2 (2013)
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“Special Issue on Asian American, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander Communities and Federally Qualified Health Centers” 12:1-2 (2014)
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“Special Issue on Wealth Inequality and Asian American Pacific Islanders” 13:1 & 2 (2015)
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“Special Issue on AAPIs 2040” 14:1 (Spring 2016)
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“Special Issue on AAPIs 2040” 14:2 (Fall 2016)
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Message From the Editors: Archive

“Community Development,” 1:1 (2003)
Message From the Editors: To Serve, Help Build, and Analyze by Paul Ong and Don Nakanishi

“Civil Rights,” 2:1 (2004)
Message From the Editors: The Asian American Nexus to Civil Rights by Angelo Ancheta, Jacinta Ma, and Don Nakanishi (Adobe PDF Document)

“Voting,” 2:2 (2004)
Message From the Editors: Voting: The Biggest Challenge and What Can Be Done by Don T. Nakanishi and Paul Ong (Adobe PDF Document)

“Health,” 3:1 (2005)
Message from the Editors: The Road Ahead – Barriers and Paths of Improving AAPI Health (Adobe PDF Document)

“Employment/Work Issues,” 3:2 (2005)
Message From the Editors: “AAPI Labor Market Status and Challenges” by Deborah Woo and Paul Ong (Adobe PDF Document)

“Glass Ceiling/Health Issues,” 4:1 (2006)
Message From the Editor: Two Foci: “Glass Ceiling?” and “Health Data” by Paul Ong, Marjorie Kagawa-Singer, and Deborah Woo (Adobe PDF Document)

“Youth,” 4:2 (2006)
Message From the Editors: Asian American and Pacific Islander Youth: Risks, Challenges and Opportunities by Karen Umemoto and Paul Ong (Adobe PDF Document)

“Art & Cultural Institutions,” 5:1 (2007)
Message From the Editors: Art & Cultural Institutions and AAPI Communities by Franklin Odo and Paul Ong (Adobe PDF Document)

“Welfare Reform,” 5:2 (2007)
Editors’ Note by Paul Ong (Adobe PDF Document)

“Model Minority Myth,” 6:1 (2008)
Message From the Editors: The Other Side of the Model Minority Coin by Marjorie Kagawa-Singer (Adobe PDF Document)

“Aging,” 6:2 (2008)
Message From the Editors: Aging by Namkee Choi and James Lubben (Adobe PDF Document)

“K-12 Education” 7:1 (2009)
Message From the Editors: K-12 Education by Peter Nien-chu Kiang and Mitchell J. Chang (Adobe PDF Document)

“Higher Education” 7:2 (2009)
Message From the Editors: Higher Education by Mitchell J. Chang and Peter Nien-chu Kiang (Adobe PDF Document)

“Intersections of Education” 8:1 (2010)
Message From the Editors: Praxis and Power in the Intersections of Education by Allyson Tintiangco-Cubales, Peter N. Kiang, and Samuel D. Museus (Adobe PDF Document)

“Mental Health” 8:2 (2010)
Message From the Editors: Culture and Mental Health: Risk, Prevention and Treatment for Asian Americans by Gilbert C. Gee, Phillip D. Akutsu, and Margaret Shih (Adobe PDF Document)

“Forging the Future” 9:1 & 2 (2011)
Message From the Editors: Forging the Future: The Role of New Research, Data, & Policies for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, & Pacific Islanders (Adobe PDF Document)

“Special Issue on Immigration” 10:1 (2012)
Message From the Editors:  Special Issues on Immigration (Adobe PDF Document)

“Special Issue on Asian Americans in Global Cities: Los Angeles – New York Connections and Comparisons” 10:2 (2012)
Message From the Editors: Special Issue on Asian Americans in Global Cities: Los Angeles – New York Connections and Comparisons (Adobe PDF Document)

“Special Issue on Asian American & Pacific Islander Environmentalism: Expansions, Connections, & Social Change” 11:1 & 2 (2013)
Message From the Editors (Adobe PDF Document)

“Special Issue on Asian American, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander Communities and Federally Qualified Health Centers” 12:1-2 (2014)
Message From the Editors: Federally Qualified Health Centers: A Prescription for Health Equity (Adobe PDF Document)

“Special Issue on Wealth Inequality and Asian American Pacific Islanders” 13:1 & 2 (2015)
Message from the Editors: Asian American and Pacific Islander Wealth Inequality and Developing Paths to Financial Security (Adobe PDF Document)

“Special Issue on AAPIs 2040” 14:1 (Spring 2016)
Message from the Editors: AAPIs 2040: Our Future by Elena Ong and S. Floyd Mori (Adobe PDF Document)

“Special Issue on AAPIs 2040” 14:2 (Fall 2016)
Read the Message from the Editors: Asian American Pacific Islanders 2040: Creating the Future in an Uncertain, Unpredictable World by Paul Ong, Elena Ong, S. Floyd Mori, Alycia Cheng, and Melany De La Cruz-Viesca (Adobe PDF Document)

Abstract: Forging the Future

AAPI Nexus: Forging the Future Volume 9, Number 1&2 Fall 2011 Abstracts

CIVIL RIGHTS

Overview: Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Data and Policy Needs in Civil Rights
By: Taeku Lee and Janelle Wong

Crossing Intersections: Challenges Facing Asian American, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Youth: Exploring Issues and Recommendations
By: Ben de Guzman and Alice Y. Hom

The experiences and the everyday life stories of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth who are also Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AANHPI) are not well-known or documented in the literature about LGBT or AANHPI communities. To help address this lack of information and knowledge, this article highlights some of the issues that these youth face and offers recommendations regarding data collection, cultural competency, and utilization of an intersectional lens of race/ethnicity and sexual orientation to ensure changes will be considered to policies that affect these populations. The policy recommendations focus on issues such as bullying and sexual and reproductive health.

Bringing Asian American Voices to Policy Debates: Findings from the 2008 National Asian American Survey
By: S. Karthick Ramakrishnan, Jane Junn, Taeku Lee, and Janelle Wong

Where do Asian Americans stand when it comes to public policy? In what ways are they most likely to participate in politics in order to exert their influence in public policy making? More often than not, the answer to these questions is mired in assumptions, anecdotes, and selective evidence because until only very recently, little systematic, nationally representative data on this emerging group has been available to the public. In this brief, we introduce the 2008 National Asian American Survey (NAAS), the first multilingual, multiethnic national survey of Asian American political attitudes and behavior, and suggest that these data shed light on: (1) critical questions about Asian Americans’ public policy attitudes and (2) the types of political action Asian Americans are most likely to take to pursue their policy interests.

Rights at Risk: South Asians in the Post-9/11 United States
By: Sangay Mishra.

South Asian Americans, one of the fastest-growing and most diverse immigrant communities, have experienced increased discrimination and hate crime during the post-9/11 period. South Asians bore the brunt of racial hostility triggered in the immediate aftermath of the attacks, with Muslims and Sikhs bearing the greatest burden. The domestic security policies inaugurated after 2001 further impacted both South Asian and Arab communities adversely. These official policies ranging from surveillance of mosques and communities to delayed naturalization and restricted immigration have severely encroached upon the civil liberties of the groups. The ten-year anniversary of the 9/11 attacks should be an occasion to review some of these policies in order to ensure that South Asian and Arab communities are not being profiled and targeted in the name of domestic security.

An Agenda for Policy Change: Participatory Research and Data Collection by Southeast Asian Youth
By: Kohei Ishihara

In a policy-making world that is influenced by “model minority” ideology and racial aggregate data, Southeast Asian Americans have become one of the most underrepresented and misunderstood Asian American communities. Cambodian, Laotian, and Hmong youth leaders in Providence, Rhode Island, protested this lack of representation by surveying 16 percent of the city’s Southeast Asian youth population. This data became the first of its kind to provide a quantitative and qualitative portrait of the lives and issues experienced by the city’s Southeast Asian residents. Youth leaders were trained in survey administration and data analysis in order to design and execute the survey. Survey results revealed the very intricate and oppressive realities faced by Southeast Asian youth, including lack of education, gang violence, racial profiling, inter-generational conflict, as well cultural conflict over ideas of gender and sexuality. Youth leaders used the data and a process of consensus decision making to develop a list of policy-change recommendations targeting Rhode Island decision makers and power brokers.

Bamboo Ceilings in the Federal Service
By: Carson K. Eoyang

This article is an update to the 2006 AAPI Nexus Journal article about Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) senior executives in the federal government. Despite notable progress in recent years, AAPIs remain underrepresented in the Senior Executive Service (SES). Although recent administration initiatives have been beneficial for increasing diversity in the civil service, budget pressures and workforce constraints still hinder further advancements in executive diversity.

Policy Recommendations to Reduce Toxic Exposures for Nail Salon Workers
By: Julia Liou, Catherine A. Porter, and Thu Quach

The nail salon sector is growing rapidly. Nail salon workers are predominantly Vietnamese immigrant women who are exposed to numerous harmful chemicals in nail care products. The situation is exacerbated by limited safety information, language barriers to information, and lack of government oversight. This brief discusses the health and safety issues faced by workers at the nexus of environmental and worker justice and the policy recommendations by which to address these issues from a public health and regulatory perspective. Although these policy recommendations pertain to California where the sector is largest, they also have far-reaching implications at the national level.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Overview: Challenges in Analyzing and Tracking Asian American Pacific Islander Economic Conditions
By: Paul Ong

Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Employment Issues in the United States
By: Marlene Kim

Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) in the United States face problems of discrimination, the glass ceiling, and very high long-term unemployment rates. As a diverse population, although some Asian Americans are more successful than average, others, like those from Southeast Asia and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs), work in low-paying jobs and suffer from high poverty rates, high unemployment rates, and low earnings. Collecting more detailed and additional data from employers, oversampling AAPIs in current data sets, making administrative data available to researchers, providing more resources for research on AAPIs, and enforcing nondiscrimination laws and affirmative action mandates would assist this population.

The State of Asian American Businesses
By: Diem Linda Tran and OiYan A. Poon

Business success is a dominant theme in the Asian American narrative. However, Asian American entrepreneurship is more complex and multilayered than commonly believed and requires careful scrutiny. This brief examines the state of Asian American business ownership between 2005 and 2007. Findings suggest that although Asian Americans form businesses at higher rates than other racial/ethnic minorities, Asian American business ownership and outcomes continue to trail those of non-Hispanic whites. Potential factors contributing to racial/ethnic gaps and policy recommendations are discussed.

The Changing Landscape of Asian Entrepreneurship, Minority Banks, and Community Development
By: Tarry Hum.

This policy brief examines minority banks and their lending practices in New York City. By synthesizing various public data sources, this policy brief finds that Asian banks now make up a majority of minority banks, and their loans are concentrated in commercial real estate development. This brief underscores the need for improved data collection and access to research minority banks and the need to improve their contributions to equitable community development and sustainability.

Disaggregation Matters: Asian Americans and Wealth Data
By: Melany De La Cruz-Viesca

This policy brief explores the usefulness and limitations of existing federal government data sets in better understanding the wealth position and asset-building needs of Asian Americans. As Asian Americans continue to be one of the fastest-growing racial groups in the United States, it is critical for federal data sets to disaggregate Asian Americans by ethnicity and by immigrant versus nonimmigrant status, in order to provide a more accurate and nuanced analysis of the Asian American experience with asset accumulation. The lumping of all Asian American ethnic groups under the aggregate “Asian” category masks a high degree of variation in social and economic status across these subgroups.

Working but Poor in New York City
By: Howard Shih

This policy brief summarizes the methodology and key findings of the Asian American Federation’s report, Working but Poor: Asian Americans in New York City. The report marked the first time Asian American poverty in New York City was examined in detail using the new American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample. The report also uses two definitions to examine struggling Asian Americans, the official poverty thresholds traditionally used and a concept of low-income families defined as families living below twice the federal poverty thresholds. After a summary on the methodology of the report, the brief will cover the findings and recommendations through three issue areas: improving job opportunities for working-age Asian Americans, building skills to help Asian American children broaden their future opportunities, and helping seniors in need of access to the social safety net. The brief concludes with an overview of Asian American poverty from a national perspective and discussion of future areas of study.

EDUCATION

Overview: Educational Data, Research Methods, Policies, and Practices that Matter for AAPIs
By: Shirley Hune

Asian American College Students over the Decades: Insights from Studying Asian American First-Year Students from 1971 to 2005 Using Survey Research Data
By: Julie J. Park

The purpose of this brief is to discuss insights from using survey data from the UCLA Higher Education Research Institute’s Cooperative Institutional Research Program’s (CIRP) Freshman Survey to study Asian American first-year students. The CIRP is the country’s oldest, ongoing study of college students, and 361,271 Asian American students have completed the survey since its inception. In addition to describing unique findings that came from disaggregating data by gender and income level, I discuss the need for survey response options to be tailored to the needs of Asian American students.

The Importance of Critically Disaggregating Data: The Case of Southeast Asian American College Students
By: Dina C. Maramba

The following policy brief calls for the improvement in data collection of Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) and, more specifically, Southeast Asian Americans (SEAAs) in order to facilitate college access and success. First, context and the concern for the lack of data are provided. Second, an explanation of the challenges with the existing data and importance of disaggregating data with regard to ethnicity and other important factors such as language and generational status are discussed. Also emphasized is the importance of incorporating the use of qualitative data in the policy decision-making process. Third, suggestions and recommendations that will benefit research and eventually positively influence policy decisions regarding SEAAs in education are discussed.

Broadening Support for Asian American and Pacific Islander Immigrant Families: The Role and Impact of Community- based Organizations in Family-Community-School Partnerships
By: Nga-Wing Anjela Wong

Children of immigrants are the fastest-growing population in the United States; therefore addressing their needs has become an important issue that faces educators, researchers, and policy makers nationwide. This policy brief examines the services and support for Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) families during nonschool hours. Specifically, I illustrate the role and impact of a community-based organization (CBO) in family-community-school partnerships and how CBOs provide information, support, and advocacy for low-income Chinese immigrant families.

Charter School “Miracle”? Youth Participatory Action Research and Education Reform in Post-Katrina New Orleans
By: Jacob Cohen and OiYan A. Poon

This policy brief examines and identifies education disparities within the context of a much-touted New Orleans “charter school miracle.” After describing the Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) method employed at a local Vietnamese American youth organization in New Orleans, we summarize findings on inequalities in academic rigor and access to quality teaching, which suggest that charter school reforms are not bringing about an education “miracle” in post-Katrina New Orleans and that students of color, in particular, are inadequately served. The brief also discusses the potential implications of YPAR methods for asserting Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) perspectives and voices in ongoing education reform debates.

Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions: Areas of Growth, Innovation, and Collaboration
By: Robert T. Teranishi.

This policy brief aims to raise the national visibility of the Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions (AANAPISI) program and link the needs of these institutions to the hundreds of similar Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs) (e.g., historically black colleges and universities, Hispanic-serving institutions, and tribal colleges and universities). More specifically, this brief demonstrates how and why the MSI policy strategy is an effective way to increase the success of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) college students, and how the AANAPISI program can be further strengthened.

HEALTH

Overview: What a Difference a Data Set and Advocacy Make for AAPI Health
By: Ninez A. Ponce

Limited English Proficiency as a Critical Component of the Department of Health and Human Services Proposed Rule for Medically Underserved Areas
By: Rosy Chang Weir, Stacy Lavilla, Winston Tseng, Luella J. Penserga, Hui Song, Sherry M. Hirota, Jeffrey B. Caballero, and Won Kim Cook

Medically underserved Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Other Pacific Islanders (AA&NHOPIs) and other racial/ethnic minorities are often left out of the health center system (OMB, 1997; Papa Ola Lokahi, 2007). The Department of Human and Health Services is updating its Proposed Rule, which determines key population health indicators for medically underserved areas (MUA) and health professional shortage designations. This is important as revisions could increase Community Health Center (CHC) health care access for underserved AA&NHOPIs. We recommend that Limited English Proficiency be used as one of the measures in determining MUAs, as it is a scientifically valid and available measure that can identify where underserved AA&NHOPIs and other minorities who face an added language barrier can access needed health services.

Collection of Local Asian American Health Data Closes Health Disparity Gaps
By: Beverly J. Gor and Lovell A. Jones

Lack of disaggregated health data for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) continues to be a barrier to identifying and addressing health disparities in the AAPI population. Because the AAPI population is relatively small, health surveillance groups frequently overlook or disregard them in their data collection, often citing that AAPIs are “difficult to reach,” or that it is too costly to include them in data sets. This brief addresses these barriers and demonstrates that when there is sufficient support from policymakers, committed academic partnerships, and genuine engagement of the community, scientifically sound health data can be collected in a cost efficient manner. Such data not only identifies health needs, but also may generate significant benefits to communities, health planners and researchers and can lead to funding to address those needs.

Childhood Obesity in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities: Critical Data Needs and Research Priorities
By: Shao-Chee Sim

Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs) have some of the fastest-growing rates of obesity of all ethnic groups (Harrison et al., 2005). Preventing childhood obesity among AANHPIs is a challenge constrained by resource and research gaps. These include the lack of national prevalence data, insufficient funding support, limited knowledge of risk factors associated with childhood obesity, particularly in these populations, and the lack of programmatic evaluations. The finding of this literature review shows that only 0.11 percent of PubMed articles on childhood obesity focused on AANHPIs. Recommendations to advance what is known about AANHPI and childhood obesity include targeting community prevalence studies, community needs assessments, risk factor studies, and program evaluations; training and mentoring junior researchers; and creating a national clearing-house to compile research literature and evidence-based practices.

Strategic Data and Research Opportunities on Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Health through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
By: Winston Tseng, Priscilla Huang, and Won Kim Coo

This paper summarizes the federal requirements under Section 4302(a) of the Affordable Care Act (ACA); the opportunities for improving data collection to address health disparities affecting Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders; the provision’s limitations; and how to address these limitations. Our recommendations for ACA Section 4302(a) implementation include: (1) adhering to the 2009 Institute of Medicine’s data standards on race, ethnicity, and primary language; (2) requiring federally-supported national surveys, health care providers, and publicly-administered health programs at the point of care and enrollment to comply with Section 4302 requirements; (3) ensuring compliance with Title VI and ACA Section 1557 non-discrimination requirements by providing translated health surveys and increasing language assistance capacity; and (4) engaging communities in the design of race, ethnicity, and language data to ensure community relevance.

NATIVE HAWAIIANS AND PACIFIC ISLANDERS

 Overview: Lots of Aloha, Little Data: Data and Research on Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders
By: Shawn Malia Kana‘iaupuni

Efficacy of Federal Data: Revised Office of Management and Budget Standard for Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders Examined
By: Sela V. Panapasa, Kamana‘opono M. Crabbe, and Joseph Keawe‘aimoku Kaholokula

This policy brief examines the status of federal data since the implementation of the 1997 Revised OMB 15 standards for the collection of race and ethnic data, identifies ongoing data limitations, and present recommendations to improve policy and interventions for Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPI). While most federal agencies are taking appropriate steps to comply with the revised OMB standards, many are having less success reporting disaggregated information on NHPIs. This suggests that increased efforts to obtain robust samples of NHPIs warrants immediate attention in order for federal agencies to fully comply with the revised OMB standards.

New Research on the Impact of Cultural Influences in Education on Native Hawaiian Student Outcomes
By: Shawn Malia Kana‘iaupuni, Brandon Ledward, and Ku‘ulani Keohokalole

The long-standing education achievement gaps of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) students in our nation represent a significant concern, one that diverse stakeholders are committed to resolving. Although national data sets fail to address NHPI populations, thereby limiting the ability to drive effective policy and programs, local-level research and developments in education provide fresh opportunities to reexamine the learning and teaching of NHPI students. This report shares the results of a quantitative research study that examines the impact of culture-based education (CBE) on student achievement and socio-emotional development. The findings indicate that culture-based educational strategies positively impact student outcomes, especially Native Hawaiian student outcomes. The implications of this study are valuable for education practitioners, programs, and policy makers seeking to eliminate achievement gaps for NHPI and indigenous students.

Policy Recommendations to Prevent Youth Violence and Substance Abuse and Foster Positive Youth Development among Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Adolescents
By Karen Umemoto and Earl S. Hishinuma

Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders represent diverse groups with unique histories and rich cultural traditions. They also confront significant challenges in health and education, experiencing disproportionally higher rates of violence and substance abuse. Policy recommendations regarding youth delinquency, substance abuse, and positive development include: (1) application of a socio-ecological approach; (2) utilization of a positive youth development and restorative approach; (3) development of culturally based interventions; (4) the building of capacity for youth-serving organizations; (5) development and strengthening of collaborations; (6) juvenile justice reforms; and (7) encouragement of research that disaggregates ethnic groups and gives greater consideration to community perspectives.

Indigenous Knowledges Driving Technological Innovation
By: The Hi‘iaka Working Group

This policy brief explores the use and expands the conversation on the ability of geospatial technologies to represent Indigenous cultural knowledge. Indigenous peoples’ use of geospatial technologies has already proven to be a critical step for protecting tribal self-determination. However, the ontological frameworks and techniques of Western geospatial technologies differ from those of Indigenous cultures, which inevitably lead to mistranslation and misrepresentation when applied to cultural knowledge. The authors advocate the creation of new technologies that are more conducive to Indigenous ontologies and epistemologies in an effort to break down the barriers to the expression and preservation of cultural heritage and cultural survival.

Liberating Data: Accessing Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Data from National Data Sets
By: Maile Taualii, Joey Quenga, Raynald Samoa, Salim Samanani, and Doug Dover

Using data from the National Center for Health Statistics, an assessment was performed on the quality of death reporting in accordance with standards, a working definition was developed, death counts and rates for several racial categories were analyzed, and data was modeled for use in data structures optimized for analysis and reporting with simple client tools. Most states were still not compliant with the 1997 Office of Management and Budget racial categories by 2005. Comparing the mortality experience of NHOPI to whites revealed many differences. Mortality was higher in NHOPI males and occurred at younger ages for both males and females. The place of death differed between NHOPI and whites, while place of injury (where applicable) was similar. Causes also varied after the top two causes of death.

Abstract: Mental Health

AAPI Nexus: Mental Health Volume 8, Number 2 Spring 2011 Abstracts

Aligning Policy to the Mental Health  Needs of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
Marguerite Ro and Wendy Ho

ABSTRACT: This paper examines federal and California state mental health policy as related to Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. A brief review of several pertinent issues is presented: the mental health status of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, culture and stigma, insurance coverage and utilization, and the mental health workforce. Recommendations are suggested to address issues of data and research, culturally competent services, and accountability of existing policies.

Comparative Effectiveness Research on Asian American Mental Health: Review and Recommendations
Frederick T.L. Leong and Zornitsa Kalibatseva

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the comparative effectiveness research (CER) paradigm and its important role in guiding current federal funding of research and examine how this paradigm can be used to guide Asian American mental health research. We will begin with a review of comparative effectiveness research and provide several examples of Asian American studies, which fit into the paradigm. In discussing how we may map the CER onto Asian American mental health research, the problem of differential research infrastructure will be introduced and used to frame our recommendations for future research. We provide some recommendations for using CER in Asian American mental health research by noting the need for multiple approaches due to the problem of differential research infrastructure, and expanding the human capital and data infrastructure. The pros and cons of randomized control trials (RCT) are discussed and an example of a study being planned by the authors is presented to illustrate how to undertake studies on Asian American mental health using the CER paradigm.

Pre-Intake Attrition or Non- Attendance of Intake Appointments at an Ethnic-Specific Mental Health Program for Asian American Children and Adolescents
Phillip D. Akutsu, Garyn K. Tsuru, and Joyce P. Chu

ABSTRACT: This study examines the relationship of client demographic, clinical, client-therapist match, and service program factors to the rate of pre-intake attrition or the non-attendance of intake appointments for 236 Asian American children and adolescents (18 years and younger) at an Asian-oriented ethnic-specific mental health program. The results showed that urgency status or the need for the earliest intake appointment, ethnic match with the prescreening interviewer, and the assignment of the prescreening interviewer as the intake therapist were significantly related to attendance of intake appointments for Asian American children and adolescents. In contrast, older age was found to reduce the likelihood of intake attendance for Asian American youth clients. Specific implications of these results to program evaluation and service improvements in mental health care delivery to Asian American youth groups will be discussed.

Cultural Identity and Conceptualization of Depression among Native Hawaiian Women
Van M. Ta, Puihan J. Chao, and Joseph Keawe’aimoku Kaholokula

ABSTRACT: This study seeks to understand how Native Hawaiian (NH) women identified themselves culturally and conceptualized the causes of depression, and whether there was an association between these two constructs. Among the thirty NH women who were interviewed, a quarter had a high degree of depression symptoms, and a majority expressed a strong/shared identification/affinity with their culture. Our findings suggest that social stressors that contribute to the depressive symptoms of NH women could be, in part, linked to acculturation-related factors associated with U.S. occupation of Hawai‘i and their social status as native people. Future research should examine this relationship further.

Asian Americans and Redistricting: Empowering Through Electoral Boundaries
Paul Ong and Albert J. Lee

ABSTRACT: This article examines the background, history, and outcomes of Asian American engagement in political redistricting. It provides a historical context through an overview of the efforts by African Americans and Latinos, which established a foundation for Asian Americans. Through an analysis of demographic and spatial patterns, the paper argues that Asian Americans face a unique challenge and consequently have had to rely on utilizing a strategy based on the concept of “Community of Common Interest” to defend the integrity of Asian American neighborhoods from being fragmented by redistricting. Although it is difficult to construct Asian-majority districts, the creation of Asian-influence districts has contributed to an increase in the numbers of elected Asian American officials.

Press Release: The Mental Health Issue

UCLA releases AAPI Nexus Journal Special Issue on Mental Health

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
April 15, 2011

Editorial contact: Melany Dela Cruz-Viesca, melanyd@ucla.edu, 310-825-2974
Review copies: aascpress@aasc.ucla.edu, 310-825-2968

Los Angeles – The UCLA Asian American Studies Center announces the publication of Asian American Pacific Islander Nexus Journal: Policy, Practice and Community Special Issue on Mental Health. This issue features select papers presented at the first “State of AAPI Mental Health” conference held in 2010, which was a transdisciplinary gathering on mental health research, treatment, and practice among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs). The release of the Special Issue on Mental Health is in conjunction with the second conference on Friday, April 22, 2011. For more information on the conference, please visit: http://www.aasc.ucla.edu/aapimh/index.html.

The goals of the two conferences and this special issue are to increase the understanding about mental health and service needs of AAPIs. Research has shown that AAPIs have unique economic, linguistic, and cultural characteristics that require specific mental health services that can adequately address their needs. This issue on Mental Health highlights some of the emerging research for AAPIs with topics ranging from current policies, new research paradigms, to personal and cultural roadblocks in relation to mental health.

Contextualizing the challenges of addressing AAPI mental health, guest editors, Gilbert C. Gee (UCLA), Phillip D. Akutsu (CSU Sacramento), and Margaret Shih (UCLA), in their introduction illustrate how cultural, historical, and community diversity have led to underutilization of services and a lack of data. They call for new research that seriously considers the theories related to differences among diverse AAPI populations.

Marguerite Ro and Wendy Ho then provide an overview of the current California and Federal policies and legislation related to mental health in “Aligning Policy to the Mental Health Needs of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.” The authors propose recommendations on how to better address issues of data and research, culturally competent services, and accountability of existing policies.

Frederick T.L. Leong and Zornitsa Kalibatseva, in “Comparative Effectiveness Research on Asian American Mental Health: Review and Recommendations,” provide an overview of the latest research paradigm called comparative effectiveness research (CER), which evaluates the efficacy of one or more interventions for a specific group. The authors urge researchers to use CER methods in order to stimulate more funding and foster a research environment that is responsive to the various issues in AAPI communities.

In the third manuscript, Phillip Akutsu and his colleagues discuss the issue of clients not showing up to their initial appointment to see a mental health provider in “Pre-Intake Attrition or Non-Attendance of Intake Appointments at an Ethnic-Specific Mental Health Program for Asian American Children and Adolescents.” Their findings show that key factors in motivating attendance involve matching the client’s language and ethnicity with the provider as well as fostering a personal connection between the provider and the client.

Van M. Ta et al. provide an ethnographic study in “Cultural Identity and Conceptualization of Depression among Native Hawaiian Women.” The authors seek to understand the correlation between cultural identity and depression among Native Hawaiian women. Their study across various age groups suggests that stressors resulting from U.S. occupation of Hawai’i such as acculturation, oppression, marginalization, and financial difficulties are important factors related to depression.

The issue closes with a non-theme article by Paul Ong and Albert Lee entitled, “Asian Americans and Redistricting: Empowering through Electoral Boundaries.” The authors contextualize the difficulties of building “communities of common interest” which ultimately helps preserve Asian American neighborhoods. They advocate for the need to bridge gaps and form coalitions to foster political empowerment for the AAPI community.

AAPI Nexus copies are $13.00 plus $4.00 for shipping and handling and 8.25% sales tax for California residents. Visit http://www.aasc.ucla.edu/aascpress/nexuscollection.asp for a complete list of AAPI Nexus Issue abstracts and messages from the editors. Make checks payable to “Regents of U.C.” VISA, MASTERCARD, and DISCOVER are also accepted; include expiration date and phone number on correspondence. The mailing address is: UCLA Asian American Studies Center Press, 3230 Campbell Hall, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1546. Phone: 310-825-2968. Email: aascpress@aasc.ucla.edu

Annual subscriptions for APPI Nexus are $35.00 for individuals and $175.00 for libraries and other institutions. AAPI Nexus is published twice a year: Spring and Fall.

Abstract: Intersections of Education

AAPI Nexus: Intersections of Education Volume 8, Number 1 Spring 2010 Abstracts

How Do Pacific Islanders Fare in U.S. Education? : A Look Inside Washington State Public Schools with a Focus on Samoans
By: Shirley Hune and Jeomja Yeo

ABSTRACT: This study examines demographic and educational characteristics of Pacific Islander students in Washington State’s public schools, with a focus on Samoans. Using statewide and Seattle Public Schools data, it uncovers disparities that hinder high school completion and college attendance. Findings suggest that Pacific Islander students in Washington are at a great disadvantage with lower levels of academic performance and school engagement. Samoans perceive discrimination, an uncaring school climate, and generational conflicts as major obstacles to their educational fulfillment. Disaggregated data for Pacific Islanders and case studies of their ethnic groups using qualitative methods provide a more accurate picture of their educational experiences.

State-Mandated Language Classification: A Study of Hmong American Students’ Access to College- Preparatory Curricula
By: Yang Sao Xiong

ABSTRACT: Language minority students, many of whom come from low socioeconomic backgrounds, confront multiple obstacles to academic success and advancement. Yet the intersection between language minority students’ K-12 experiences and their potential to obtain higher education remains understudied. This paper examines how a set of institutional processes and practices— state-mandated classification, testing, and tracking—operates to systematically limit language minority students’ access to college-preparatory curricula. Using data from interviews, this study investigates Hmong American high school and college students’ experiences in English language development and mainstream academic tracks, as well as their perceptions regarding access to college preparatory courses. The evidence suggests that students tracked in English Language Development curricula not only have limited access to key resources, such as college preparatory courses, but also hold lower aspirations about college, compared to those who are in college preparatory tracks. The limitations of this study and implications for future research are discussed.

Model Minority, Model for Whom?: An Investigation of Asian American Students in Science/Engineering
By: Yingyi Ma

ABSTRACT: This study examines the attainment of the bachelor’s degrees in science and engineering among Asian American students, including those who are immigrant children and children with immigrant parents. Using data from National Education Longitudinal Studies: 1988-2000, this study finds that Asian Americans have the highest rate of expectation for majoring in natural science and engineering. After they attend college, they have the highest rate of persistence. Drawing from Bourdieu’s theory of cultural capital and habitus, this article finds that Asian American students are disadvantaged in cultural capital compared with other racial groups from the similar socioeconomic backgrounds, and they tend to formulate certain negative self-perceptions associated with their inclination towards science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. These findings provide further evidence to challenge the model minority thesis, which suggests the choice and the attainment of STEM degrees by Asian American youth is entirely a success story.

Pin@y Educational Partnerships: A Counter-Pipeline to Create Critical Educators
By: Allyson Tintiangco-Cubales, Roderick Daus-Magbual, and Arlene Daus-Magbual

ABSTRACT: This practitioners’ essay is about the programmatic and pedagogical development of Pin@y Educational Partnerships (PEP), a collaborative teacher pipeline that spans kindergarten to the doctoral level. As a “counter-pipeline,” PEP has been able to “grow our own” critical educators and provide a more critical and socially engaged education for all of its students. Since the fall of 2001, PEP has grown to provide services at five public schools with over forty teacher apprentices. This essay aims to provide PEP’s story as a resource for academics and practitioners in the hopes that more partnerships between the university, schools, and the community can be built to address the inequities and gaps that are prevalent in education, especially in the experiences of youth of color.

Press Release: The Intersections of Education Issue

AAPI Nexus Journal Releases Special Issue on “Praxis and Power in the Intersections of Education”

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
October 8, 2010

Editorial contact: Melany Dela Cruz-Viesca, melanyd@ucla.edu, 310-825-2974
Review copies: aascpress@aasc.ucla.edu, 310-825-2968

Los Angeles—AAPI Nexus Journal has released its final issue of the special three-part series focusing on education. In this issue, guest editors Allyson Tintiangco-Cubales, Peter Nien-chu Kiang, and Samuel D. Museus present a series of articles that urge researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners to connect their work more intentionally across the domains of K-12 and higher education in order to have impact on a range of critical educational issues in AAPI communities. According to the editors, “When the roads of K-12 schooling and higher education converge…we discover glimpses of possibility for improvements in access, retention, and curricular matters.”

Shirley Hune and Jeomja Yeo open this issue with a study of the demographics and educational characteristics of Samoan students in Washington State public schools. Through the examination of statewide and district-level data, they find that Samoan students are at lower levels of performance and school engagement due to their school climates, generational conflicts, and other obstacles in their educational experiences.

Language barriers represent serious obstacles that limit access to higher education for many students from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds. Yang Sao Xiong’s study examines how state-mandated classification, testing, and tracking might limit language access to college-preparatory curricula specifically for Hmong American students in California. Through the analysis of interviews, Xiong also investigates Hmong American high school and college students’ perceptions about their college-going preparation.

Using national data, Yingyi Ma finds that Asian Americans have the highest expectations to major in natural science and engineering, as well as the highest rates of persistence in those fields. However, she argues that these students’ choices to enter the science and engineering fields are a result of being disadvantaged by their relative lack of cultural capital compared to other racial groups. Ma also describes how Asian American students tend to formulate negative self-perceptions towards the STEM fields of study.

In their practitioners’ essay, Allyson Tintiangco-Cubales, Roderick Daus-Magbual, and Arlene Daus-Magbual share the history and growth of Pin@y Educational Partnerships (PEP), a collaborative teacher pipeline from kindergarten to the doctoral level that can serve as a model for developing partnerships between schools, universities, and communities. They describe the programmatic and pedagogical development of PEP, including how it has been able to “grow” its own social justice educators and provide a more critical and socially engaged education for all of its students.

*Get the three-part series on education for a special price of 3 for *$30!* For more details, see our promo flyer. AAPI Nexus copies are $13.00 plus $4.00 for shipping and handling, and 9.75% sales tax for California residents. Make checks payable to “UC Regents.” VISA, MASTERCARD, and DISCOVER are also accepted; include expiration date and phone number on
correspondence. The mailing address is: UCLA Asian American Studies Center Press, 3230 Campbell Hall, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1546. Phone: 310-825-2968. Email: aascpress@aasc.ucla.edu. Annual subscriptions for AAPI Nexus are $35.00 for individuals and $175.00 for libraries and other institutions. AAPI Nexus is published twice a year: Winter/Spring, and Summer/Fall.

Abstract: Higher Education

AAPI Nexus: Higher Education Volume 7, Number 2 Fall 2009 Abstracts

“Not in Your Backyard!”: A Community Struggle for the Rights of Immigrant Adult Education in San Francisco’s Chinatown
By: L. Ling-chi Wang

ABSTRACT: This article is a case study of a protracted struggle to establish a branch campus of the San Francisco Community College in Chinatown for thousands of immigrants and working-class adults, focusing mostly on the period since 1997 when the community was slowly politicized and mobilized to fight for their educational rights. Although educational researchers continue to pay close attention to Asian American fights against discriminatory admission policies among the nation’s top colleges and universities, an urgent need to pay more scholarly and political attention to the neediest, poorest, and powerless among Asian Americans clearly exists. To this segment of the Asian American population, access to community college education is a matter of acquiring tools of survival in America. The study illustrates the equal significance of race and class in understanding the development of Asian American communities, how each can be used to obfuscate or disguise the other, and how both can be easily obscured by other issues, especially “progressive” issues or organizations. Asian American community activists and scholars need to pay more attention to class and class conflict with the communities and between the communities and the mainstream society.

Retention and Matriculation Obstacles and Opportunities for Southeast Asian Community College Transfer Students
By: Richard L. Wagoner and Anthony S. Lin

ABSTRACT: This qualitative case study of twenty Southeast Asian students at a flagship public research university suggests that it is illogical to view them as the “model minority” so often described in the literature. Their experience is not the same as that of students from other Asian ethnicities. They struggle with similar issues that challenge other students who come from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. However, the students in this study did discuss two issues that might be more unique to them: immigrant status and the importance of the ethnically based student organization as a means of support and belonging.

“Greasy Grinds” and “Quasi-Robots:” Rhetoric of Exclusions against Jewish and Asian American Students in American Universities
By: Jillian Liesemeyer

ABSTRACT: This study examines the historical comparison between exclusionary quotas against Jewish students in American universities and the recent similarities with the controversy over Asian American enrollment. Through an analysis of historical discourse from within the administration, in the public realm, and from students, parallels are seen between the two incidents. With a more complete understanding of the historical trends in exclusionary practices in universities, policymakers can recognize the current controversy with Asian American enrollment and take on the problem at the source.

AAPIs in the College Access Debate: A Case of Generational and Communication Gaps in the AAPI Education Agenda
By: Oiyan A. Poon

ABSTRACT: Through the presentation of a case study, this resource article argues for the establishment of a national, comprehensive Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) education organization to facilitate communication among educators, students, and community and institutional leaders in order to develop an education policy agenda based on community interests and research. It presents an analysis of the debate over a new University of California (UC) admissions eligibility policy. After discussing how Asian Americans are framed within admissions debates, the article summarizes the new UC policy and presents an analysis of the policy change, addressing concerns raised by two community leaders. This case study demonstrates the need to connect the diverse intergenerational, ethnic, and gendered voices among AAPIs in education.

Asian American and Pacific Islander Serving Institutions: The Motivations and Challenges behind Seeking a Federal Designation
By: Julie J. Park and Mitchell J. Chang

ABSTRACT: This article examines the development of legislation to create a federal designation for Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) serving institutions. Specifically, the article draws from interviews with nineteen policy makers, congressional staffers, and community advocates in order to address their motivations for establishing this designation and the related challenges that they encountered.  Besides the complexities of ushering legislation through Congress, one of the major challenges highlighted includes the lack of political infrastructure for advocating Asian American issues related to education. Recommendations for the future sustainability of federal support for AAPI serving institutions are also discussed.

Press Release: The Higher Education Issue

AAPI NEXUS Journal Releases Special Issue on Asian American and Pacific Islander Higher Education

For Immediate Release
August 4, 2010

Editorial contact: Melany Dela Cruz-Viesca, melanyd@ucla.edu, 310-825-2974
Review copies: aascpress@aasc.ucla.edu, 310-825-2968

* *

AAPI Nexus Journal Releases Special Issue on Asian American and Pacific Islander Higher Education

Los Angeles – AAPI Nexus Journal has released its second issue of a three part education series, focusing on Higher Education.  Guest editors Mitchell J. Chang (UCLA) and Peter Nien-chu Kiang (University of Massachusetts Boston) have assembled articles that expand the horizon of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) educational research in exciting ways that extend beyond well-trotted model minority paradigms. The articles in this issue discuss not only the many challenges that AAPI college students face, but also potential solutions that have implications for future generations of AAPI college students.

Ling-chi Wang writes of the struggles that community members in San Francisco faced for nearly thirty years to establish a Chinatown campus of the City College of San Francisco.  Wang emphasizes the roles of neighborhood demographics and political alliances that affect the construction of community colleges for AAPIs.

Rick Wagoner and Anthony Lin document issues and events that deal with Southeast Asian American community college students who transfer to four-year institutions.  They show how state- and federal-level policies are neglecting to acknowledge the disadvantages that Southeast Asian students encounter in community colleges, such as inadequate mentorship and programs, which have a negative impact on their transition into a four-year university.

Next, Jillian Liesemeyer finds a significant parallel between the historical trends of exclusionary quotas against Jewish students in American universities and the contemporary controversy over Asian American student enrollment in higher education.  Liesemeyer highlights the responses of students and university administrators to these issues that had been largely publicized and debated in newspapers and articles.  By understanding the similarities in these two cases, Liesemeyer hopes that policymakers can better confront the exclusionary practices against Asian Americans.

Similarly, Oiyan Poon examines the recent policy changes in eligibility of admissions in the University of California system. In her article, Poon concludes by proposing a national research-based education organization to facilitate communication among educators, students, and community and institutional leaders in order to develop an education policy agenda based on community interests and research and to help advocate more effectively for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.

Julie Park and Mitchell Chang close this second issue by providing insights into the development of legislation for the federal designation of AAPI-serving institutions. They document the experiences of policy makers, congressional staffers, and community advocates, with an eye toward improving the future influence of AAPI communities on educational matters.

AAPI Nexus copies are $13.00 plus $4.00 for shipping and handling, and 9.75% sales tax for California residents. Make checks payable to “UC Regents.” VISA, MASTERCARD, and DISCOVER are also accepted; include expiration date and phone number on correspondence. The mailing address is: UCLA Asian American Studies Center Press, 3230 Campbell Hall, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1546. Phone: 310-825-2968. Email: aascpress@aasc.ucla.edu

Annual subscriptions for AAPI Nexus are $35.00 for individuals and $175.00 for libraries and other institutions. AAPI Nexus is published twice a year: Winter/Spring, and Summer/Fall.

AAPI Nexus: Youth 4:2 (2006)

"Youth," 4:2 (2006)

“Youth,” 4:2 (2006)

“Youth,” 4:2 (2006)

Guest Editor: Karen Umemoto

There is no question that adolescent violence and related risk behaviors are a serious problem in the U.S. today. Over the past several decades, there has been a concerted effort to identify factors that pose a risk for or serve as protection against delinquency and violence using large sample and longitudinal studies of youth. Together, the articles in this special issue belie the simplistic “whiz kid” stereotypes. “These articles,” says Umemoto, “contribute to the critical conversation on the risks, challenges, and opportunities facing AAPI youth.”

Authors:
James Diego Vigil, Tomson H. Nguyen, Jesse Cheng, Thao N. Le, Judy L. Wallen, Ahn-Luu T. Huynh-Hohnbaum, David Tokiharu Mayeda, Lisa Pasko, Meda Chesney-Lind, Isami Arifuku, Delores D. Peacock, Caroline Glesmann, Deborah Woo.

Read the Editors’ Note: Asian American and Pacific Islander Youth: Risks, Challenges and Opportunities by Karen Umemoto and Paul Ong (Adobe PDF Document)

Read the Press Release on the issue: Special Focus on Youth Facing Risks

View the Abstracts

Browse the Table of Contents (Adobe PDF Document)